The effect of Li+ on GSK-3 inhibition: molecular dynamics simulation.
ABSTRACT Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a kind of serine-threonine protein kinase. It places important roles in several signaling pathways and it is a key therapeutic target for a number of diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, Alzheimer's disease and chronic inflammation. Mg(2+) ions which interact with ATP are conserved in GSK. They are important in phosphoryl transfer. Li(+) is an inhibitor for GSK-3. It is used to treat bipolar mood disorder. This paper illustrates the effect of Li(+) on GSK-3. When Mg(I)(2+) is replaced by Li(+), the atom fluctuation of GSK-3 will rise, and the in-line phosphoryl transfer mechanism is probably demolished and the binding of pre-phosphorylated substrates may be disturbed. All the results we obtained clearly suggest that inhibition to GSK-3 is caused by the Mg(I)(2+) replacement with Li(+).
- SourceAvailable from: ucsd.edu[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The glycine-rich loop, one of the most important motifs in the conserved protein kinase catalytic core, embraces the entire nucleotide, is very mobile, and is exquisitely sensitive to what occupies the active site cleft. Of the three conserved glycines [G(50)TG(52)SFG(55) in cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK)], Gly(52) is the most important for catalysis because it allows the backbone amide of Ser(53) at the tip of the loop to hydrogen bond to the gamma-phosphate of ATP [Grant, B. D. et al. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 7708]. The structural model of the catalytic subunit:ATP:PKI((5)(-)(24)) (heat-stable protein kinase inhibitor) ternary complex in the closed conformation suggests that Ser(53) also might be essential for stabilization of the peptide substrate-enzyme complex via a hydrogen bond between the P-site carbonyl in PKI and the Ser(53) side-chain hydroxyl [Bossemeyer, D. et al. (1993) EMBO J. 12, 849]. To address the importance of the Ser(53) side chain in catalysis, inhibition, and P-site specificity, Ser(53) was replaced with threonine, glycine, and proline. Removal of the side chain (i.e., mutation to glycine) had no effect on the steady-state phosphorylation of a peptide substrate (LRRASLG) or on the interaction with physiological inhibitors, including the type-I and -II regulatory subunits and PKI. However, this mutation did affect the P-site specificity; the glycine mutant can more readily phosphorylate a P-site threonine in a peptide substrate (5-6-fold better than wild-type). The proline mutant is compromised catalytically with altered k(cat) and K(m) for both peptide and ATP and with altered sensitivity to both regulatory subunits and PKI. Steric constraints as well as restricted flexibility could account for these effects. These combined results demonstrate that while the backbone amide of Ser(53) may be required for efficient catalysis, the side chain is not.Biochemistry 08/2000; 39(28):8325-32. · 3.38 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Lithium inhibits (Li(+)) glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) by competition for magnesium (Mg(2+)), but not ATP or substrate. Here, we show that the group II metal ion beryllium (Be(2+)) is a potent inhibitor of GSK-3 and competes for both Mg(2+) and ATP. Be(2+) also inhibits the related protein kinase cdc2 at similar potency, but not MAP kinase 2. To compare the actions of Li(+) and Be(2+) on GSK-3, we have devised a novel dual inhibition analysis. When Be(2+) and ADP are present together each interferes with the action of the other, indicating that both agents inhibit GSK-3 at the ATP binding site. In contrast, Li(+) exerts no interference with ADP inhibition or vice versa. We find, however, that Li(+) and Be(2+) do interfere with each other. These results suggest that Be(2+) competes for two distinct Mg(2+) binding sites: one is Li(+)-sensitive and the other, which is Li(+)-insensitive, binds the Mg:ATP complex.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2002; 290(3):967-72. · 2.41 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Lithium, one of the most effective drugs for the treatment of bipolar (manic-depressive) disorder, also has dramatic effects on morphogenesis in the early development of numerous organisms. How lithium exerts these diverse effects is unclear, but the favored hypothesis is that lithium acts through inhibition of inositol monophosphatase (IMPase). We show here that complete inhibition of IMPase has no effect on the morphogenesis of Xenopus embryos and present a different hypothesis to explain the broad action of lithium. Our results suggest that lithium acts through inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3 beta), which regulates cell fate determination in diverse organisms including Dictyostelium, Drosophila, and Xenopus. Lithium potently inhibits GSK-3 beta activity (Ki = 2 mM), but is not a general inhibitor of other protein kinases. In support of this hypothesis, lithium treatment phenocopies loss of GSK-3 beta function in Xenopus and Dictyostelium. These observations help explain the effect of lithium on cell-fate determination and could provide insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of bipolar disorder.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/1996; 93(16):8455-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor