The Cost Impact of Hospital-Acquired Conditions Among Critical Care Patients
ABSTRACT The modifications introduced to the inpatient prospective payment system on October 1, 2008, to disallow payment for 8 secondary conditions, if not present on admission (POA), constitute a significant shift that is expected to be followed by similar steps by private payers.
To investigate the cost impact of hospital-acquired complications (HACs).
Discharges that included critical care (CC) stay cases, stratified by diagnosis-related groups, were categorized into (1) cases with HACs-those cases where 1 or more of complications were acquired during the course of treatment; (2) cases with complications that were POA; and (3) cases with no HACs or complications on admission. Twelve diagnostic condition groupings or HACs were examined.
Sepsis was the most common condition among single-occurrence HACs, as well as those where 2 HACs occurred. Among the 22 diagnosis-related groups examined, total discharge and CC costs, length of stay, and CC length of stay were consistently the highest among discharges where a HAC occurred, followed by discharges with the presence of a POA complication. Conversely, the lowest level of resource use was associated with discharges where no complication occurred.
The estimates provided in this study should enable hospitals to identify how improvements in care can also result in cost savings. Focusing this study on CC cases enables hospitals to address highest cost cases that consume crucial resources in their CC settings.
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ABSTRACT: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) unquestionably have substantial effects on morbidity and mortality. However, quantifying the exact economic burden attributable to HAIs still remains a challenging issue. Inaccurate estimations may arise from two major sources of bias. First, factors other than infection may affect patients' length of stay (LOS) and healthcare utilization. Second, HAI is a time-varying exposure, as the infection can impact on LOS and costs only after the infection has started. The most frequent mistake in previously published evidence is the introduction of time-dependent information as time-fixed, on the assumption that the impact of such exposure on the outcome was already present on admission. Longitudinal and multistate models avoid time-dependent bias and address the time-dependent complexity of the data. Appropriate statistical methods are important in analysis of excess costs and LOS associated with HAI, because informed decisions and policy developments may depend on them.Clinical Microbiology and Infection 12/2010; 16(12):1729-35. DOI:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2010.03332.x · 5.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Currently the USA has an aging population, with increasing deficits and a healthcare system that most would agree is in need of repair. Finding ways to curtail costs is urgently needed. Attention to glycemic control and metabolic care offers a cost-effective method of treatment to reduce complications. Healthcare-related expenses occupy an expanding portion of gross domestic product in the US and are a driver of the deficit. Despite all of this spending, the US receives average marks on outcomes and is not obtaining value in its healthcare. Any movements toward healthcare reform must focus on improving outcomes per healthcare dollar spent, and increasing value. The Affordable Care Act will place greater emphasis on preventing complications and reducing hospital-acquired infections. The original Leuven trial demonstrated that proper implementation of glycemic control can reduce morbidity and mortality. More recent studies have shown that there is a cost-benefit to glycemic control as well, through reduction of hospital stay and prevention of complications. On the basis of these changes, physicians who practice metabolic care and provide glycemic control are well positioned to add value in this era of healthcare reform. Glycemic control is inherently valuable in the care of ICU patients as it decreases infectious complications, reduces lengths of stay, and has a positive effect on morbidity and mortality. Further studies should be completed to delineate the exact amount of cost-savings that can be obtained by proper implementation of glycemic control in the ICU.03/2011; 14(2):209-12. DOI:10.1097/MCO.0b013e3283437bc4
Article: The Economics of Sepsis[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock impose a growing economic burden on health care systems globally. This article first describes the epidemiology of sepsis within the United States and internationally. It then reviews costs associated with sepsis and its management in the United States and internationally, including general cost sources in intensive care, direct costs of sepsis, and indirect costs of the burden of illness imposed by sepsis. Finally, it examines the cost-effectiveness of sepsis interventions, focusing on formal cost-effectiveness analyses of nosocomial sepsis prevention strategies, drotrecogin alfa (activated),and integrated sepsis protocols.Critical care clinics 01/2012; 28(1):57-76, vi. DOI:10.1016/j.ccc.2011.09.003 · 2.50 Impact Factor