Does severity of renal scarring on DMSA scan predict abnormalities in creatinine clearance?
ABSTRACT To examine the relationship between severity of renal scarring and creatinine clearance. Existing studies on renal scarring and functional outcomes have focused on the presence or absence of scarring.
Patients with a history of urinary tract infection leading to the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux were recruited. These subjects were admitted to a pediatric research center for an in-patient collection of 24-hour urine to be sent for creatinine and protein. DMSA scans performed at least 6 months after documented urinary tract infection were graded by 3 independent, blinded pediatric urologists for renal scarring according to the Randomized Intervention for Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux study criteria.
Twenty-nine subjects (14 girls, 15 boys) with a median age of 7 years were recruited. Scar grading was reliable between the observers with a Kappa score of 0.66-0.75. On DMSA scan, 10% were scar-free, 62% had unilateral scars, and 28% had bilateral scars. Mean creatinine clearance was 123 for those with unilateral disease and 100 for those with bilateral disease (P = .048). Median proteinuria (58 mg/dL) and serum creatinine (0.5 mg/dL) were similar between the 2 groups. Creatinine clearance did not differ according to average scar grade, taking both kidneys into account.
In children with vesicoureteral reflux, although those with bilateral scarring have a significantly lower creatinine clearance than those with unilateral scarring, the severity of scar grade alone does not predict overall creatinine clearance with short-term follow-up.
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ABSTRACT: Computer simulations are an increasingly important area of geoscience research and development. At the core of stochastic or Monte Carlo simulations are the random number sequences that are assumed to be distributed with specific characteristics. Computer-generated random numbers, uniformly distributed on (0, 1), can be very different depending on the selection of pseudo-random number (PRN) or chaotic random number (CRN) generators. In the evaluation of some definite integrals, the resulting error variances can even be of different orders of magnitude. Furthermore, practical techniques for variance reduction such as importance sampling and stratified sampling can be applied in most Monte Carlo simulations and significantly improve the results. A comparative analysis of these strategies has been carried out for computational applications in planar and spatial contexts. Based on these experiments, and on some practical examples of geodetic direct and inverse problems, conclusions and recommendations concerning their performance and general applicability are included.Computers & Geosciences 01/2011; 37:928-934. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome after endoscopic therapy by injection of bulking agent in the treatment of occult vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) [no VUR on standard voiding cystourethrography (VCUG), but positive (99m)Tc-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan] in females who have recurrent febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs). Material and methods. A case series was retrospectively identified of 24 females (mean age 15.5 years) with negative VCUG, but renal scars in one (n = 4) or both (n = 20) kidneys on DMSA scan. Endoscopic injection was performed bilaterally in 20 (83.3%) and unilaterally in four patients (16.7%). The incidence of postoperative UTIs was documented with a mean follow-up of 2.5 years (range 1-6 years). Results. The mean renal part function (DMSA scan) on the left and right sides was 53.5% (15-74%) and 47.3% (26-85%), respectively. Twenty-one out of 24 patients (87.5%) showed no evidence of any febrile UTIs postoperatively. One patient (4.2%) experienced a further febrile UTI 6 months after treatment. Two other patients (8.3%) had one questionable afebrile UTI, 4 and 3 years after therapy. Pressure-flow electromyography confirmed a dysfunctional voiding pattern in 12 patients (50%) treated with pelvic floor therapy and behavioural interventions before endoscopic therapy. Conclusions. Injection of bulking agent seems to be a suitable treatment for occult VUR in females to prevent further febrile UTIs. Patients with occult VUR should undergo a careful evaluation of possible urodynamic disorders such as dysfunctional voiding. These findings should be studied in prospective trials before drawing any conclusions.Scandinavian journal of urology. 03/2014;