Current dipole orientation and distribution of epileptiform activity correlates with cortical thinning in left mesiotemporal epilepsy.

Department of Radiology, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA.
NeuroImage (Impact Factor: 6.13). 10/2010; 52(4):1238-42. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.04.264
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To evaluate cortical architecture in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with respect to electrophysiology, we analyze both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 19 patients with left MTLE. We divide the patients into two groups: 9 patients (Group A) have vertically oriented antero-medial equivalent current dipoles (ECDs). 10 patients (Group B) have ECDs that are diversely oriented and widely distributed. Group analysis of MRI data shows widespread cortical thinning in Group B compared with Group A, in the left hemisphere involving the cingulate, supramarginal, occipitotemporal and parahippocampal gyri, precuneus and parietal lobule, and in the right hemisphere involving the fronto-medial, -central and -basal gyri and the precuneus. These results suggest that regardless of the presence of hippocampal sclerosis, in a subgroup of patients with MTLE a large cortical network is affected. This finding may, in part, explain the unfavorable outcome in some MTLE patients after epilepsy surgery.

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that patients with epilepsy have abnormal imaginary coherence compared with control subjects. Methods Thirty patients with seizures underwent magnetoencephalography (MEG) recording using a whole cortex MEG system. Conventional equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) and synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM) were used to analyze MEG data. Neural synchronization was studied using imaginary coherence to analyze resting-state MEG data. The ECDs, SAM, and MEG results were then compared with intra/extra-operative EEG. Results Abnormal imaginary coherence was identified in all patients (30/30, 100%). The locations of abnormal imaginary coherence were in agreement with the ECDs locations of spikes in 23 patients (23/30, 76.7%). The ECDs locations in 5 patients were scattered or located bilaterally. The locations of abnormal imaginary coherence were in agreement with SAM locations in 26 patients (26/30, 86.7%). One case of imaginary coherence was located in two lobes. The ECDs fit locations were in agreement with SAM locations in 21 patients (21/30, 70.0%). The locations of abnormal imaginary coherence, ECDs, and SAM were in agreement with intra/extra-operative EEG in 23 patients (23/30, 76.7%), 17 patients (17/30, 56.7%), and 20 patients (20/30, 66.7%), respectively. The results of ECDs location, SAM location, imaginary coherence, and intracranial EEG (iEEG) were consistent in 15 patients (15/30, 50%). Conclusions The results show that patients with epilepsy have abnormal imaginary coherence, and suggest that the location and coherence of epileptic activity could be quantitatively identified and analyzed using neuromagnetic signals.
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    ABSTRACT: Magnetoencephalography (MEG), which acquires neuromagnetic fields in the brain, is a useful diagnostic tool in presurgical evaluation of epilepsy. Previous studies have shown that MEG affects the planning intracranial electroencephalography placement and correlates with surgical outcomes by using a single dipole model. Spatiotemporal source analysis using distributed source models is an advanced method for analyzing MEG, and has been recently introduced for analyzing epileptic spikes. It has advantages over the conventional single dipole analysis for obtaining accurate sources and understanding the propagation of epileptic spikes. In this article, we review the source analysis methods, describe the techniques of the distributed source analysis, interpretation of source distribution maps, and discuss the benefits and feasibility of this method in evaluation of epilepsy.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 01/2014; 8:62. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Limbic epilepsy refers to a condition that consists of epileptic seizures that originate in or preferentially involve the limbic system. The majority of cases are medically refractory, necessitating surgical resection when possible. However, even resection of structures thought to be responsible for seizure generation may not leave a patient seizure free. While mesial temporal lobe limbic structures are centrally involved, there is growing evidence that the epileptogenic network consists of a broader area, involving structures outside of the temporal lobe and the limbic system. Information on structural, functional, and metabolic connectivity in patients with limbic epilepsy is available from a large body of studies employing methods such as MRI, EEG, MEG, fMRI, PET, and SPECT scanning, implicating the involvement of various brain regions in the epileptogenic network. To date, there are no consistent and conclusive findings to define the exact boundaries of this network, but it is possible that in the future studies of network connectivity in the individual patient may allow more tailored treatment and prognosis in terms of surgical resection.
    International Review of Neurobiology 01/2014; 114C:89-120. · 2.46 Impact Factor

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