Article

Reduced olfactory bulb volume and olfactory sensitivity in patients with acute major depression.

Smell and Taste Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Dresden Medical School, Dresden, Germany.
Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 3.12). 08/2010; 169(1):415-21. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2010.05.012
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to assess olfactory function and olfactory bulb volume in patients with acute major depression in comparison to a normal population. Twenty-one patients diagnosed with acute major depressive disorder and 21 healthy controls matched by age, sex and smoking behavior participated in this study. Olfactory function was assessed in a lateralized fashion using measures of odor threshold, discrimination and identification. Olfactory bulb volumes were calculated by manual segmentation of acquired T2-weighted coronal slices according to a standardized protocol. Patients with acute major depressive disorder showed significantly lower olfactory sensitivity and smaller olfactory bulb volumes. Additionally, a significant negative correlation between olfactory bulb volume and depression scores was detected. Their results provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, of decreased olfactory bulb volume in patients with acute major depression. These results might be related to reduced neurogenesis in major depression that could be reflected also at the level of the olfactory bulb.

0 0
 · 
0 Bookmarks
 · 
69 Views
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Depression is a leading contributor to the global burden of disease. Despite advances in research, challenges still exist in managing this disorder. Sufferers of autoimmune disease are often observed to suffer from depression more often than healthy individuals, an association that cannot be completely accounted for by the impact of the disease on the individual. An association between autoimmunity and depressive symptoms also appears to exist in populations with subclinical symptoms. Moreover, researchers have successfully developed murine models illustrating the ability of autoantibodies to induce depressive-like symptoms. This paper will provide an overview of the association between autoantibodies and occurrence of depressive symptoms. Though current evidence appears to support a role for autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of depression, the majority of studies have examined this relationship cross-sectionally, therefore failing to establish a temporal association. Nonetheless, this novel theory meshes with older and newer neurochemical theories of depression. A better understanding of the immuno-pathogenesis underlying depression presents opportunities for more targeted treatment approaches and more timely and appropriate measures of detection.
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 01/2014; · 9.44 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The olfactory bulb (OB) receives odor information from the olfactory epithelium and relays this to the olfactory cortex. Using a mouse model, we found that development and maturation of OB interneurons depends on the zinc finger homeodomain factor teashirt zinc finger family member 1 (TSHZ1). In mice lacking TSHZ1, neuroblasts exhibited a normal tangential migration to the OB; however, upon arrival to the OB, the neuroblasts were distributed aberrantly within the radial dimension, and many immature neuroblasts failed to exit the rostral migratory stream. Conditional deletion of Tshz1 in mice resulted in OB hypoplasia and severe olfactory deficits. We therefore investigated olfaction in human subjects from families with congenital aural atresia that were heterozygous for TSHZ1 loss-of-function mutations. These individuals displayed hyposmia, which is characterized by impaired odor discrimination and reduced olfactory sensitivity. Microarray analysis, in situ hybridization, and ChIP revealed that TSHZ1 bound to and regulated expression of the gene encoding prokineticin receptor 2 (PROKR2), a G protein-coupled receptor essential for OB development. Mutations in PROKR2 lead to Kallmann syndrome, characterized by anosmia and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Our data indicate that TSHZ1 is a key regulator of mammalian OB development and function and controls the expression of molecules involved in human Kallmann syndrome.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 02/2014; · 15.39 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Animal studies show a strong link between the loss of olfactory function and depressive behavior. We analyzed, whether olfactory function is a marker for depression in humans. If so, reduced olfactory function can be expected in depression that improves to level of normality after successful antidepressive treatment. Twenty-seven female in-patients with depression were compared to 28 healthy age-matched women at the beginning and at the end of antidepressive therapy or at two visits, respectively. Olfactory function was assessed comprehensively including threshold, discrimination and identification testing, chemosensory event related potentials and olfactory functional magnetic resonance imaging. At the beginning of psychotherapy the patients exhibited reduced olfactory discrimination, prolonged latencies of the event-related potential and reduced activation in secondary olfactory structures (thalamus, insula, and left middle orbitofrontal). After therapy, patients improved significantly in all of the parameters and consequently the differences between control group and patients vanished. We conclude that olfaction is a marker for depression. However, the results are limited to a relatively selective sample of depressed women.
    Journal of affective disorders 01/2014; · 3.76 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
3 Downloads
Available from
Dec 20, 2013