Oxidative stress in response to high glucose levels in endothelial cells and in endothelial progenitor cells: evidence for differential glutathione peroxidase-1 expression.
ABSTRACT Endothelial cells and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a key role in the pathogenesis of vascular disease. Both cell types are affected by the oxidative stress but their susceptibility may be different. This study aimed to investigate the antioxidative enzymes activated in EPCs after high constant glucose exposure as compared to endothelial cells (HUVECs). Both cells were incubated in the presence of normal (5mM) and high constant (25mM) d-glucose, as well as l-glucose as osmotic control for 48 and 96h. After a 48-hour exposure to high d-glucose, cell viability was significantly decreased both in EPCs and HUVECs as compared with normal d-glucose (p<0.01). However, after 96h there was no difference between EPCs grown on normal or high d-glucose, while HUVEC viability was affected by high d-glucose at 96h too (p<0.001). High d-glucose exposure induced a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in both cell types at 48h; however, after 96h, a significant decrease in ROS production (p<0.01) and a parallel marked increase in glutathione peroxidase type 1 (GPx-1) expression (p<0.01) and activity (p<0.01) were observed in EPCs compared to HUVECs. These data suggest that EPCs have a well-adaptive response to oxidative stress induced by constant and sustained high glucose exposure. This resistance to high glucose levels might be due to increased expression and activity of glutathione peroxidase allowing better cell survival.
- Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 10/2008; 28(9):1584-95. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In vitro models of diabetic nephropathy that assess the role of hyperglycemia on proximal tubular cell turnover commonly compare cells in a high-glucose medium (25 or 30 mM) with a low-glucose medium (5 to 6.1 mM). Any cellular growth changes observed are usually attributed to the effect of high glucose. We hypothesize that in such experiments, glucose concentrations in the low-glucose medium may decline during the course of the experiments to levels that inhibit cell growth leading to the comparative conclusion that high glucose induces hyperplasia and/or hypertrophy. In this study, primary cultures of human proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC) and immortalized HK-2 cells were exposed to low (5 mM) or high (17, 30, or 47 mM) glucose for up to 6 days (PTEC) and 48 h (HK-2). When culture media were not replenished, low glucose induced a significant increase in necrosis and release of lactate dehydrogenase and a decrease in proliferation, metabolic activity, and protein content without any changes in apoptosis. High-glucose media failed to induce any of these changes. Glucose was undetectable in the low-glucose culture medium after 72 h. No significant differences were observed between any of the treatment groups when culture media were replenished daily. We conclude that regular replenishment of culture media is necessary to prevent the emergence of artifactual and misleading differences between high- and low-glucose groups. The current knowledge of the pathophysiology of high glucose based on cell culture systems may need to be reevaluated.American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 09/2005; 289(2):F401-9. · 3.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The transcriptional profiles of mouse embryonic, neural, and hematopoietic stem cells were compared to define a genetic program for stem cells. A total of 216 genes are enriched in all three types of stem cells, and several of these genes are clustered in the genome. When compared to differentiated cell types, stem cells express a significantly higher number of genes (represented by expressed sequence tags) whose functions are unknown. Embryonic and neural stem cells have many similarities at the transcriptional level. These results provide a foundation for a more detailed understanding of stem cell biology.Science 11/2002; 298(5593):597-600. · 31.20 Impact Factor