Dietary sulfur amino acid effects on fasting plasma cysteine/cystine redox potential in humans

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
Nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.93). 02/2011; 27(2):199-205. DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2010.01.014
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Oxidation of plasma cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS) redox potential (E(h)CySS) has been associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease in humans. Cys and CySS are derived from dietary sulfur amino acids (SAA), but the specific effects of SAA depletion and repletion on Cys/CySS redox indices are unknown. The present study examined the effect of dietary SAA intake level on free Cys, free CySS, and E(h)CySS in human plasma under fasting conditions.
Healthy individuals aged 18-36 y (n = 13) were equilibrated to foods providing the RDA for SAA and then fed chemically defined diets without SAA (0 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 13) followed by SAA at levels approximating the mean (56 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 8) or 99th percentile (117 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5) intake levels of Americans. Fasting plasma samples were collected daily during 4-d study periods and analyzed for free Cys, free CySS, and the E(h)CySS.
The SAA-free diet significantly (P < 0.05) decreased plasma-free Cys concentrations and oxidized E(h)CySS values after 4 d of SAA depletion. With SAA repletion at 56 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1), plasma-free Cys increased significantly and values for E(h)CySS became more reduced. Administration of a diet providing a higher dose of SAA (117 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1)) resulted in a significantly higher level of free Cys and a more reduced E(h)CySS.
These results show that free Cys and Cys/CySS redox potential (E(h)CySS) in fasting plasma are affected by dietary SAA intake level in humans. Significant changes occur slowly over 4 d with insufficient SAA intake, but rapidly (after 1 d) with repletion.

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Available from: Thomas R Ziegler, Mar 02, 2015
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    • "Although the precise mechanism for the oxidative cysteine/cystine-dependent signaling for mitochondrial ROS production is not yet clear; the authors provide evidence of a possible link to changes in the redox state of cytoskeletal proteins that could be functionally linked to the mitochondrial membrane. Other studies have demonstrated that an oxidized plasma cysteine/cystine redox potential is associated with proinflammatory conditions [78, 79] and can be modulated by diet [80, 81]. These observations support the possibility that the oxidized plasma cysteine/cystine in children with autism may be functionally related to the increase in lymphocyte free radical production observed and contribute to immune cell abnormalities in these children. "
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    ABSTRACT: The modulation of the redox microenvironment is an important regulator of immune cell activation and proliferation. To investigate immune cell redox status in autism we quantified the intracellular glutathione redox couple (GSH/GSSG) in resting peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), activated monocytes and CD4 T cells and the extracellular cysteine/cystine redox couple in the plasma from 43 children with autism and 41 age-matched control children. Resting PBMCs and activated monocytes from children with autism exhibited significantly higher oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and percent oxidized glutathione equivalents and decreased glutathione redox status (GSH/GSSG). In activated CD4 T cells from children with autism, the percent oxidized glutathione equivalents were similarly increased, and GSH and GSH/GSSG were decreased. In the plasma, both glutathione and cysteine redox ratios were decreased in autistic compared to control children. Consistent with decreased intracellular and extracellular redox status, generation of free radicals was significantly elevated in lymphocytes from the autistic children. These data indicate primary immune cells from autistic children have a more oxidized intracellular and extracellular microenvironment and a deficit in glutathione-mediated redox/antioxidant capacity compared to control children. These results suggest that the loss of glutathione redox homeostasis and chronic oxidative stress may contribute to immune dysregulation in autism.
    08/2012; 2012:986519. DOI:10.1155/2012/986519
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    • "The reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione (GSH and GSSG) act in concert with other redox-active compounds (e.g., NAD(P)H) to regulate and maintain cellular redox status [9]. The former is quantitatively described by the redox potential, calculated according to the Nernst equation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Glutathione (GSH) is a tripeptide, which has many biological roles including protection against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. The primary goal of this paper is to characterize the principal mechanisms of the protective role of GSH against reactive species and electrophiles. The ancillary goals are to provide up-to-date knowledge of GSH biosynthesis, hydrolysis, and utilization; intracellular compartmentalization and interorgan transfer; elimination of endogenously produced toxicants; involvement in metal homeostasis; glutathione-related enzymes and their regulation; glutathionylation of sulfhydryls. Individual sections are devoted to the relationships between GSH homeostasis and pathologies as well as to developed research tools and pharmacological approaches to manipulating GSH levels. Special attention is paid to compounds mainly of a natural origin (phytochemicals) which affect GSH-related processes. The paper provides starting points for development of novel tools and provides a hypothesis for investigation of the physiology and biochemistry of glutathione with a focus on human and animal health.
    02/2012; 2012(5):736837. DOI:10.1155/2012/736837
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    • "The decreased GSH concentrations observed in this study have been found previously in patients with HIV þ [20] [21] [22] [23]. GSH decreases in response to low-protein ingestion or specific deficits of its component amino acids [24]. In the present work, the two groups had their usual diet as the baseline and washout, in addition to similarly presenting with overweight and normal albuminemia, thus excluding a low-protein intake situation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with positivity for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV⁺) present low concentrations of antioxidant nutrients, including total glutathione (GSH) and its precursors. We investigated the responses of the sulfur-containing amino acid pathway to cysteine and glutamine (Gln) dietary supplements in patients with HIV⁺ compared with healthy controls. Twelve treated patients (six men and six women, 22-45 y old) and 20 healthy controls (10 men and 10 women, 20-59 y old) were randomly assigned to 7-d dietary supplements containing N-acetylcysteine (NAC; 1 g/d) or Gln (20 g/d), with a 7-d washout period ingesting their usual diet. Blood samples were drawn after an overnight fast. High-performance liquid chromatographic plasma analysis of sulfur-containing amino acids (methionine, homocysteine, cysteine, and taurine), GSH, oxidized GSH, and serine, glycine, glutamic acid, and Gln was carried out moments before and after 7-d supplementations. Statistical comparisons were undertaken between groups and between dietary supplements (P < 0.05). Patients with HIV⁺ showed higher oxidized GSH and lower concentrations of GSH and all amino acids except homocysteine. The HIV⁺ group responded to the NAC by increased levels of sulfur-containing amino acids and GSH and equalized taurine and GSH levels in the control group. The Gln supplements also equalized the levels of GSH, Gln, and glycine in the control group. An increase in GSH may be attained by NAC or Gln supplementation, with NAC acting by increasing cysteine levels and Gln likely acting by replenishing the glycine pool (trial registered at, identifier NCT00910442).
    Nutrition 01/2012; 28(7-8):753-6. DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2011.10.014 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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