Article

Novel tuberculosis vaccines on the horizon.

Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Department of Immunology, Berlin, Germany.
Current opinion in immunology (Impact Factor: 7.87). 06/2010; 22(3):374-84. DOI: 10.1016/j.coi.2010.04.006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Eleven new tuberculosis (TB) vaccines are in various phases of clinical trials. These include subunit vaccines to improve the current vaccine BCG, and recombinant BCG to substitute for BCG, both given pre-exposure to prevent active disease. A plethora of potential candidates have reached various stages of the pre-clinical development pipeline, some ready to enter Phase I clinical trial soon. A boost vaccine to top up the immunity of existing BCG is on the horizon and will have to suffice until a better candidate to replace BCG is ready. The live mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis show great promise, but face a myriad of regulatory challenges.

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    • "One of the focuses of vaccine development is to combine multiple epitopes in the same construct, with the aim of achieving a broader and more potent response than whole-protein vaccines (Parida and Kaufmann, 2010). To streamline the selection of epitopes for this purpose, microarray and immuno-informatics have been used. "
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    • "Perhaps the unstable structure feature is one of possible reasons for ESAT-6 low inherent immunogenicity that is not sufficient to elicit specific protective immunity against M. tb infection by itself. Many studies have tried to fuse ESAT-6 with other TB antigens or carrier proteins to enhance its immunogenicity [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]. For the instance, in the new promising TB vaccine H56, ESAT-6 was fused with two other TB antigens Ag85B and Rv2660c [7]. "
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    • "While new vaccines are currently in development [5] [6], BCG remains the only TB vaccine approved for human use. Thus, one promising avenue is to develop adjuvants that are capable of improving efficacy of the existing BCG vaccine. "
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    04/2011; 2011:835410. DOI:10.1155/2011/835410
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