Antioxidant responses in gills of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) as biomarkers of environmental stress along the Spanish Mediterranean coast

Instituto Español de Oceanografía, IEO, Centro Oceanográfico de Murcia, C/Varadero 1, 30740, San Pedro del Pinatar, Murcia, Spain.
Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) (Impact Factor: 3.45). 08/2010; 99(2):186-97. DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2010.04.013
Source: PubMed


Antioxidant response was used to assess the effects of the main pollutants in wild mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) along the Mediterranean coast of Spain. Antioxidant enzyme activities - those of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase and DT-diaphorase - as well as lipid peroxidation and metallothionein concentrations were measured in gills of mussels from 16 selected sites. Furthermore, concentrations of the main contaminants (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, As, PAH, PCB, and DDT) were quantified in mussel tissue, and environmental parameters were measured in water samples collected at each site. Results showed that the glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes offered an increased and coordinated response against metal (Hg, Pb and Cd) contamination. These enzymatic activities correlated positively to temperature, suggesting the influence of this environmental parameter on antioxidant responses in gill tissues. Furthermore, although temperature did not reach stressful levels in the study area, it seemed to add a synergistic effect to that produced by metals to induce antioxidant enzymes in the most metal-polluted sites. Catalase activity appeared to be involved in a different antioxidant pathway, more related to organic pollutant bioaccumulation, offering an efficient protection mechanism against reactive oxygen species generation due both to organic exposure and high physiological activity, reflected by high condition indices. In general terms, increased levels of antioxidant enzymes at some sites suffering from metal and organic pollution indicated a situation of oxidative stress that nevertheless did not appear to be harmful, since lipid peroxidation levels showed no peroxidative damage in gill tissues of mussels collected from even the most heavily polluted sites. On the other hand, metallothionein and DT-diaphorase did not reflect pollutant exposure and seemed to be more influenced by environmental variables than by the pollutants.

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    • "lls . Similar findings were reported in C . edule from Ria de Aveiro by Freitas et al . ( 2012a ) . Also Torres et al . ( 2002 ) showed that the activity of SOD was not induced in the mussel Mytella guya - nensis from polluted areas , despite induction of CAT activity . However , the induction of GSTs , SOD activity and GSH was clearly reported by Fern andez et al . ( 2010 ) , in M . galloprovincialis from metal polluted sites , suggesting that higher pollutant stress may have induce GSTs , GSH and SOD expression in xenobiotic damage . Also Wang et al . ( 2012 ) reported that R . philippinarum transplanted to polluted areas in Maluan Bay ( China ) presented an increase of SOD , CAT and GSTs activity , sug"
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    • "SODs (CuZnSOD and MnSOD being respectively the cytosolic and the mitochondrial form) are known to catalyze the dismutation of superoxide anions into hydrogen peroxides, which are in turn reduced by CAT into water and molecular oxygen. The increase of these antioxidant enzymes in response to effluent exposure seems to constitute an adaptation in gills to prevent and/or repair metal-induced damage in cellular component (Fernandez et al. 2010). Several studies have shown that metals can promote oxidative stress in cells (Sabatini et al. 2011; Trevisan et al. 2014; Wang et al. 2010), and in particular, Kamel et al. (2012) found a correlation between CAT, MnSOD, and metal accumulations in clams treated with municipal effluents. "
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