Antioxidant responses in gills of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) as biomarkers of environmental stress along the Spanish Mediterranean coast.
ABSTRACT Antioxidant response was used to assess the effects of the main pollutants in wild mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) along the Mediterranean coast of Spain. Antioxidant enzyme activities - those of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase and DT-diaphorase - as well as lipid peroxidation and metallothionein concentrations were measured in gills of mussels from 16 selected sites. Furthermore, concentrations of the main contaminants (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, As, PAH, PCB, and DDT) were quantified in mussel tissue, and environmental parameters were measured in water samples collected at each site. Results showed that the glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes offered an increased and coordinated response against metal (Hg, Pb and Cd) contamination. These enzymatic activities correlated positively to temperature, suggesting the influence of this environmental parameter on antioxidant responses in gill tissues. Furthermore, although temperature did not reach stressful levels in the study area, it seemed to add a synergistic effect to that produced by metals to induce antioxidant enzymes in the most metal-polluted sites. Catalase activity appeared to be involved in a different antioxidant pathway, more related to organic pollutant bioaccumulation, offering an efficient protection mechanism against reactive oxygen species generation due both to organic exposure and high physiological activity, reflected by high condition indices. In general terms, increased levels of antioxidant enzymes at some sites suffering from metal and organic pollution indicated a situation of oxidative stress that nevertheless did not appear to be harmful, since lipid peroxidation levels showed no peroxidative damage in gill tissues of mussels collected from even the most heavily polluted sites. On the other hand, metallothionein and DT-diaphorase did not reflect pollutant exposure and seemed to be more influenced by environmental variables than by the pollutants.
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ABSTRACT: As part of an integrative monitoring campaign involving water and sediment chemistry, in situ bioassays, and mussel bioaccumulation and biomarkers, Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels of standard size were transplanted from a clean location to five sites in two important harbours from the Atlantic coast of Spain (Vigo and Pasaia). After a 30-day field exposure, the concentrations of major contaminants (trace metals, polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) accumulated in mussel tissues were measured at each site, and a mussel bioaccumulation index (MBI) was calculated. The enzymatic activity levels of glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were quantified in the gills of transplanted mussels (n=12). Mussels from the most polluted sites consistently exhibited significantly higher GST and GPx activities compared to the control site, whereas AChE activity was significantly inhibited. The responses of the GST and GPx activities were related to MBI, trace metals and PAH concentrations in mussels, whereas AChE activity was related to the trace metals concentrations in mussels. The above results suggest that GST and AChE activities can be used as potential biomarkers for active monitoring in marine coastal ecosystems. However, at this moment, GPx activity is not robust enough to be applicable to harbour areas.Science of The Total Environment 10/2013; 470-471C:107-116. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus) were transplanted in cages for three months in two Swedish coastal areas in the Bothnian Sea (northern Baltic Sea) to investigate the interactions between analysed environmental chemicals and biological responses. A wide array of biological parameters (biomarkers) including antioxidant and biotransformation activity, geno-, cyto- and neurotoxic effects, phagocytosis, bioenergetic status and heart rate were measured to detect the possible effects of contaminants. Integrated Biomarker Response index and Principal Component Analysis performed on the individual biological response data were able to discriminate between the two study areas as well as the contaminated sites from their respective local reference sites. The two contaminated sites outside the cities of Sundsvall (station S1) and Gävle (station G1) were characterised by different biomarker response patterns. Mussels at station S1 showed a low condition index, increased heart rate recovery time and phagocytosis activity coinciding with the highest tissue concentrations of some trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organotins. At station G1 the highest organochlorine pesticide concentration was recorded as well as elevations in glutathione S-transferase activity, thiamine content and low lysosomal membrane stability. Significant variability in the geno- and cytotoxic responses and bioenergetic status was also observed at the different caging stations. The results obtained suggest that different chemical mixtures present in the study areas cause variable biological response patterns in organisms.Science of The Total Environment 01/2014; s 473–474:398–409. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bioaccumulation via growing cells is a potential technique for heavy metal removal from food materials. The cadmium bioaccumulation characteristics by growing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Z. rouxii displayed powerful cadmium removal ability at low cadmium concentrations, which mainly depended on the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation. The percentage of intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts obviously decreased with the increase of initial biomass and cadmium concentrations. Low pH and elevated concentrations of zinc and copper significantly decreased the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts but improved the cadmium tolerance and the cell-surface cadmium bioaccumulation of Z. rouxii. Cadmium removal of Z. rouxii was improved by zinc and copper conditionally. Z. rouxii that possessed more powerful cadmium tolerance and removal ability at low pH and high concentration of competing ions can be developed into a potential cadmium removal agent using in complex food environment in future.Bioresource Technology 12/2013; 155C:116-121. · 5.04 Impact Factor