Hepatic stellate cells are an important cellular site for β-carotene conversion to retinoid.
ABSTRACT Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are responsible for storing 90-95% of the retinoid present in the liver. These cells have been reported in the literature also to accumulate dietary β-carotene, but the ability of HSCs to metabolize β-carotene in situ has not been explored. To gain understanding of this, we investigated whether β-carotene-15,15'-monooxygenase (Bcmo1) and β-carotene-9',10'-monooxygenase (Bcmo2) are expressed in HSCs. Using primary HSCs and hepatocytes purified from wild type and Bcmo1-deficient mice, we establish that Bcmo1 is highly expressed in HSCs; whereas Bcmo2 is expressed primarily in hepatocytes. We also confirmed that HSCs are an important cellular site within the liver for accumulation of dietary β-carotene. Bcmo2 expression was found to be significantly elevated for livers and hepatocytes isolated from Bcmo1-deficient compared to wild type mice. This elevation in Bcmo2 expression was accompanied by a statistically significant increase in hepatic apo-12'-carotenal levels of Bcmo1-deficient mice. Although apo-10'-carotenal, like apo-12'-carotenal, was readily detectable in livers and serum from both wild type and Bcmo1-deficient mice, we were unable to detect either apo-8'- or apo-14'-carotenals in livers or serum from the two strains. We further observed that hepatic triglyceride levels were significantly elevated in livers of Bcmo1-deficient mice fed a β-carotene-containing diet compared to mice receiving no β-carotene. Collectively, our data establish that HSCs are an important cellular site for β-carotene accumulation and metabolism within the liver.
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ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to determine the levels and distributions of retinoids, retinol-binding protein (RBP), retinyl palmitate hydrolase (RPH), cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP), and cellular retinoic acid-binding protein (CRABP) in different types of isolated liver cells. Highly purified fractions of parenchymal, fat-storing (stellate), endothelial, and Kupffer cells were isolated in high yield from rat livers. The retinoid content of each fraction was measured by HPLC analysis. RBP, CRBP, and CRABP were measured by sensitive and specific radioimmunoassays, and RPH activity was measured by a sensitive microassay. The concentrations of each parameter expressed per 10(6) parenchymal or fat-storing cells were, respectively: retinoids, 1.5 and 83.9 micrograms of retinol equivalents; RBP, 138 and 7.4 ng; RPH, 826 and 1152 pmol FFA formed hr-1; CRBP, 470 and 236 ng; and CRABP, 5.6 and 8.7 ng. When these data were expressed on the basis of per unit mass of cellular protein, the concentrations of RPH, CRBP, and CRABP in the fat-storing cells, which contain 10-fold less protein than the large parenchymal cells, were seen to be greatly enriched over parenchymal cells. The parenchymal cells contained approximately 9% of the total retinoids, 98% of the total RBP, 90% of the total RPH activity, 91% of the total CRBP, and 71% of the total CRABP found in the liver. The fat-storing cells accounted for approximately 88% of the total retinoids, 0.7% of the total RBP, 10% of the RPH activity, 8% of the total CRBP, and 21% of the CRABP in the liver. The endothelial and Kupffer cell fractions contained very low levels of all of these parameters. Thus, the large and abundant parenchymal cells account for greater than 70% of the liver's RBP, RPH, CRBP, and CRABP; but the much smaller and less abundant fat-storing cells contain the majority of hepatic retinoids and greatly enriched concentrations of RPH, CRBP, and CRABP.The Journal of Lipid Research 11/1985; 26(10):1241-51. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Studies were conducted to examine the in vivo transfer of chylomicron (dietary) retinoid from rat liver parenchymal to stellate cells. We specifically addressed the question of whether chylomicron retinyl ester is transferred directly from hepatic parenchymal to stellate cells without first undergoing hydrolysis. [14C]Retinyl palmitate and its non-hydrolyzable ether analog, retinyl [3H]hexadecyl ether, were utilized to answer this question. Chylomicrons labeled with these retinoids were injected intravenously into rats. Liver cell fractions, highly enriched in parenchymal or in stellate cells, were isolated 0.5 h, 4.5 h and 24 h after chylomicron injection. The ratio of 3H: 14C found in parenchymal cell preparations 4.5 h after injection was 1.8 times the ratio for the injected chylomicrons, and 24 h postinjection the ratio had increased to 2.5 times that of the chylomicrons. In the stellate-cell-enriched preparations the 3H: 14C ratio was found to be 0.39, 0.29, and 0.23 times the ratio found in the injected labeled chylomicrons at 0.5 h, 4.5 h and 24 h after injection respectively. From the levels of 14C observed in the isolated stellate cells, it is estimated that 0.5 h postinjection the stellate cells contained approximately 34% of the 14C (i.e. the retinol injected as chylomicron retinyl ester) present in the liver. By 4.5 h the 14C present in isolated stellate cells had risen to approximately 41% of that present in the total liver, and 24 h after injection approximately 55% of hepatic total 14C was found in the stellate cells. These findings suggest that chylomicron retinyl ester is not transferred directly from the parenchymal to stellate cells without first undergoing hydrolysis to retinol.European Journal of Biochemistry 05/1987; 164(2):301-7. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have recently shown that newly administered vitamin A (retinol) is initially taken up by the parenchymal cells of the liver, and subsequently (within 1-2 h) transferred to non-parenchymal liver cells (NPC) (Blomhoff et al., ref. ). In the present study we have separated the NPC by different methods to determine the cell type responsible for this uptake of [3H]retinol. When liver cells were prepared between 5 and 18 h after intraduodenal administration of [3H]retinol, the radioactive retinol was recovered mainly in the stellate cells. Other liver cells (i.e., hepatocytes, endothelial cells and Kupffer cells) contained only small amounts of [3H]retinol. Further, fluorescence microscopy studies indicated that stellate cells contain large quantities of retinol. Our results show that newly administered [3H]retinol, which is initially located in the hepatocytes, is transferred to the stellate cells and stored there.Experimental Cell Research 02/1984; 150(1):186-93. · 3.56 Impact Factor