Pseudohyperplastic carcinoma with xanthomatous changes: A neoplasm mimicking glandular hyperplasia of the prostate
ABSTRACT Varieties of prostatic adenocarcinoma whose architectural and cytological appearance mimicked benign lesions have been reported in recent decades. Such neoplasms include xanthomatous (foamy) carcinoma and pseudohyperplastic carcinoma. We recently studied five carcinomas showing a cytoarchitectural combination of both neoplasms which were confused with benign glandular proliferations.
Five cases (1.8%) of pseudohyperplastic carcinoma showing xanthomatous changes were selected from a total of 280 biopsies showing prostate carcinoma. Glandular prostatic hyperplasia was originally diagnosed in four of such cases.
Patient age ranged from 54 and 78 years (mean, 64 years). All patients had high prostate-specific antigen levels, and digital rectal examination showed abnormalities in four of them. Neoplasms showed minimal atypia and consisted of mid- to large-sized glands arranged in nests resembling hyperplastic nodules. Glands showed papillary projections, infoldings, and undulations. Most nuclei were basal, small and hyperchromatic, and nucleomegaly was only seen in two biopsies in isolated histological fields. Several useful criteria for diagnosis of acinar carcinoma, such as perineural infiltration, mitosis, crystalloids, blue secretions, and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasm, were absent.
Prostatic carcinoma with a pseudohyperplastic pattern and xanthomatous changes mimics hyperplastic glands. Timely detection is critical to avoid treatment delay.
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Article: Pseudohyperplastic carcinoma with xanthomatous changes: A neoplasm mimicking glandular hyperplasia of the prostate
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ABSTRACT: Pseudohyperplastic carcinoma (PHPC) is a prostatic neoplasm that can be easily mistaken for nodular hyperplasia or atypical adenomatous hyperplasia. To determine the frequency and clinicopathologic characteristics of PHPC, we reviewed 200 simple prostatectomy specimens. We found 3 cases (1.5%) of PHPC. The tumors were small and ranged in size from 4 to 6 mm. Two of them were erroneously diagnosed as benign glandular proliferations in the original interpretation. Their histologic aspect at low magnification showed nodules of well-differentiated medium-sized glands with cystic dilation in a tight arrangement that imparted a benign appearance. Corpora amylacea were found in 2 cases. However, the lining cells showed nucleomegaly and prominent nuclei in most of the neoplastic glands, and the high-molecular-weight keratin (34BE12) immunostain revealed absence of basal cells. α-Methylacyl-CoA-racemase was positive in 2 cases. In one case, a small focus of moderated acinar adenocarcinoma was found adjacent to the pseudohyperplastic glands facilitating the diagnosis. The 3 patients are disease-free 3 and 4 years after surgery probably because of the small size of the tumors; however, it must be emphasized that most PHPC are considered moderately differentiated and potentially aggressive neoplasms.Annals of diagnostic pathology 03/2011; 15(3):170-4. DOI:10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2010.11.007 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The similarity between some carcinomas and many benign glandular proliferations has been mentioned in the literature for decades. The description of the main histologic features of pseudohyperplastic carcinoma has been very useful in avoiding errors of interpretation, particularly false-negative results. In recent years, we have found some histologic variants of this neoplasm that have not been mentioned previously. In order to classify the different histologic growth patterns and comment on their differential diagnosis, we reviewed the architectural and cytologic features of 34 cases of pseudohyperplastic adenocarcinoma in 2 radical prostatectomies, 4 transurethral resections, and 28 needle biopsies. Growth patterns most commonly observed included nodular, complex, and mixed (nodular and complex) patterns. Other less frequent histologic varieties included adenosis-like pattern, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia-like pattern, pseudohyperplastic adenocarcinoma with xanthomatous features, and limited pseudohyperplastic adenocarcinoma. Frequent changes in neoplastic glands included papillary infoldings, large/cystic glands, and branching. Criteria associated with malignancy include nuclear enlargement (92%), apparent nucleoli (85%), pink amorphous secretions (78%), and transition to small acinar carcinoma (70%). However, in some biopsies, nuclear atypia was little apparent. Fifteen of the 34 cases were misdiagnosed as benign and 5 as other malignant neoplasms, and included the following diagnoses: hyperplastic nodules (11), prostatic adenosis (2), diffuse adenosis of the peripheral zone (1), benign cystic glands (1), and less frequently other malignant tumors including xanthomatous carcinoma (2), low-grade prostatic adenocarcinoma (2), and atrophic carcinoma (1). It is important to recognize the different growth patterns of this neoplasm in order to avoid an underdiagnosis of malignancy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.Annals of Diagnostic Pathology 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2015.04.009 · 1.11 Impact Factor