Rashkind balloon atrial septostomy is a common cardiac procedure aimed at improving systemic oxygenation in newborns with cyanotic congenital cardiac defects, such as transposition of the great arteries. Recent reports on the safety of this procedure were from limited series at single institutions. We analysed two complementary national databases to evaluate clinically relevant outcomes of this procedure.
We performed an analysis of transposition of the great artery patients nationwide using 15 years of the Nationwide In-patient Sample and three complementary years of the Kids' Inpatient Database. Variables included gender, race, age, and co-existing diagnoses. Outcomes included mortality, length of stay, and hospital charges. Comparison between patients undergoing Rashkind procedure or not was performed using Pearson's chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests. We identified 8681 patients with transposition of the great arteries, of whom 1742 (20%) underwent Rashkind procedure. Patients undergoing Rashkind procedure had lower mortality (10% versus 12%, p = 0.021), despite higher median co-morbidities and longer median length of stay. Rashkind procedure was not associated with increased risk of necrotising enterocolitis (1% versus 1%, p = 0.630), but was associated with nearly twice the risk of clinically recognised stroke (1% versus 0%, p = 0.046).
This study represents the largest national analysis of transposition of the great artery patients to date, with a subset treated with Rashkind procedure. Patients not undergoing Rashkind procedure had higher mortality. Rashkind procedure was not associated with increased risk of necrotising enterocolitis, but was associated with twice the risk of stroke.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Balloon atrial septostomy (BAS) is a palliative procedure performed in the preoperative management of patients with transposition of great arteries (TGA), to improve the mixing of blood between the 2 systems. This report describes experience at the Clínica Cardiovascular Santa Maria in Medellin, Colombia. Between 2002 and 2010, 22 patients with TGA underwent BAS. Patient age at the time of the procedure was 21 days on average; 68% of patients were male. Average weight was 2.96 kg and interatrial gradient was between 4 and 12 mm Hg. The average systemic oxygen saturation at the beginning of the procedure was 60%, with a final saturation of 90%. Z5 atrioseptostomy balloons were used in 18 patients (81%), using Rashkind technique; Tyshak balloon catheters were used in 3 patients (13%) with the Shrivastava technique; and static high-pressure peripheral angioplasty balloons were used in 3 patients (13%). Two patients underwent BAS with 2 types of balloons. Although there were no complications clearly attributable to the procedure, 14% of patients had evidence of focal brain injury on the postoperative magnetic resonance image. Six patients died (27%), 5 of them because of postoperative complications and 1 because of infectious complications at another institution. All postoperative deaths occurred before 2006. The BAS is a safe technique for preoperative stabilization of patients with TGA.
World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Hearth Surgery 04/2011; 2(2):249-252. DOI:10.1177/2150135110395409
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OPINION STATEMENT: Because a minority of patients with D-transposition of the great arteries are diagnosed in utero by ultrasound, most present after delivery with cyanosis. In the absence of apparent lung disease, cyanotic neonates suspected of having a cardiac lesion should be immediately transferred to an intensive care unit at a pediatric tertiary care center for monitoring, resuscitation, and to define the cardiac anatomy and physiology. A prostaglandin E-1 infusion is usually initiated to maintain ductal patency and promote intra-cardiac mixing. In the past, balloon atrial septostomy (BAS) was routinely performed to enlarge the atrial septal defect and improve intra-cardiac mixing while the infants awaited surgery. Recent literature has reported an increase risk of stroke in neonates who undergo BAS, although more recent studies refute this. Our current practice is to perform BAS in neonates who have both echocardiographic evidence of a restrictive atrial septum and hypoxia or instability that is unresponsive to other interventions. The occasional patient who does not respond to initial management may have elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and may stabilize with pulmonary vasodilators, such as inhaled nitric oxide. Rarely, a child does not respond to interventional and pharmacologic resuscitation and requires mechanical support pre-operatively with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). In our experience, ECMO has been a successful bridge to corrective surgery with excellent outcomes. After pre-operative stabilization, arterial switch procedure is typically performed in the first week of life with very favorable early results.
Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine 06/2011; 13(5):456-63. DOI:10.1007/s11936-011-0138-5
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To perform a systematic review and a meta-analysis of the effects of balloon atrial septostomy on peri-operative brain injury in neonates with transposition of the great arteries.
We conduct a systematic review of the literature to identify all observational studies that included neonates born with transposition of the great arteries who had peri-operative evidence of brain injury.
The search strategy produced three prospective and two retrospective cohort studies investigating the association between balloon atrial septostomy and brain injury totalling 10,108 patients. In two studies, the outcome was represented by the presence of a coded diagnosis of a clinically evident stroke at discharge, whereas in three studies the outcome was represented by the finding of pre-operative brain injury identified by magnetic resonance scans.
The overall brain injury rate for neonates who underwent balloon atrial septostomy versus control patients was 60 of 2273 (2.6%) versus 45 of 7835 (0.5%; pooled odds ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence intervals, 0.93-3.89; p = 0.08). A subgroup analysis of the three studies that used pre-operative brain injury as the primary outcome found no significant association between balloon atrial septostomy and brain injury (pooled odds ratio, 2.70; 95% confidence intervals, 0.64-11.33; p = 0.17). Balloon atrial septostomy frequency was 22.4% (2273 of 10,108), with reported rates ranging from 20% to 75%.
Our analysis shows that balloon atrial septostomy is not associated with increased odds for peri-operative brain injury. Balloon atrial septostomy should still be used for those patients with significant hypoxaemia, haemodynamic instability, or both.
Cardiology in the Young 11/2011; 22(1):1-7. DOI:10.1017/S1047951111001909 · 0.84 Impact Factor
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