Tight relations between coronary calcification and atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid artery in chronic dialysis patients

Departments of Nephrology, Hypertension and Kidney Transplantation, Medical University, Łódź, Poland.
Nephrology (Impact Factor: 2.08). 03/2010; 15(2):184-9. DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1797.2009.01169.x
Source: PubMed


Both vascular calcification and atherosclerosis are highly prevalent in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and have been associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity. Because those two phenomena might be only coincidentally related in chronic haemodialysis (HD) patients, in this study, coronary artery calcification (CAC), common carotid artery intima media thickness (CCA-IMT) and thickness of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery were simultaneously measured.
In a cross-sectional study of 47 HD patients (31 male, mean age 56.8 +/- 11.4 years, and 16 female, mean age 56.0 +/- 7.5 years) without history of major cardiovascular complications. CCA-IMT and presence and thickness of atherosclerotic plaques were measured with ultrasound and CAC with multidetector computed tomography.
The CAC were present in 70.2% of patients. The mean CAC was 1055 +/- 232, the mean CCA-IMT was 0.96 +/- 0.21. The atherosclerotic plaques in the common carotid arteries were visualized in 38 patients (80.1%), the mean thickness of the atherosclerotic plaque was 1.61 +/- 0.8 mm. We found a significant positive correlation between CAC and CCA-IMT (r = 0.70, P < 0.001). The thickness of atherosclerosis plaque positively correlated with CAC as well as with CCA-IMT (r = 0.60, P < 0.001 and r = 0.7, P < 0.003, respectively).
The study revealed close relationships between CAC, intima media thickness and the thickness of atherosclerotic plaques in dialysis patients. It may indicate that both vascular calcification and atherosclerotic lesions frequently coexist in patients with ESRD and that the intima media thickness could serve as a surrogate marker of vascular calcification.

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    • "Vascular calcifications and atherosclerosis are frequent in patients with ESRD and they are associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity [25]. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) was found in 70.2% of dialysis patients and was significantly associated with CCA-IMT and the thickness of atherosclerotic plaques [26]. These results indicate that both, medial calcification and atherosclerotic lesions, frequently coexist in patients with ESRD and that CCA-IMT, increased in patients with calcifications examined in this study, may serve as a surrogate marker of vascular calcification. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. The objective of the study was to assess the relationship between selected clinical and biochemical parameters of end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients and arterial calcification. Materials and Methods. The study comprised 59 stage 5 chronic kidney disease patients (36 hemodialyzed and 23 predialysis). The examined parameters included common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT), BMI, incidence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG), dyslipidemia, hypertension, and 3-year mortality. Plasma levels asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and osteocalcin (OC) were also measured. Fragments of radial artery obtained during creation of hemodialysis access were stained for calcifications using von Kossa method and alizarin red. Results. Calcification of radial artery was significantly associated with higher prevalence of IFG and diabetes (P = 0.0004) and older age (P = 0.003), as well as higher OPG (P = 0.014) and ADMA concentrations (P = 0.022). Fasting glucose >5.6 mmol/l (IFG and diabetes) significantly predicted vascular calcification in multiple logistic regression. The calcification was also associated with higher CCA-IMT (P = 0.006) and mortality (P = 0.004; OR for death 5.39 [1.20-24.1] after adjustment for dialysis status and age). Conclusion. Combination of renal insufficiency and hyperglycemic conditions exerts a synergistic effect on vascular calcification and increases the risk of death.
    International Journal of Endocrinology 12/2013; 2013:969038. DOI:10.1155/2013/969038 · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    • "Furthermore the vascular pathologies commonly seen in dialysis patients may differ from typical atherosclerotic changes largely due to intensive medial and not only intimal calcification [22]. Both these processes may however share the same pathogenesis including chronic inflammation and oxidative stress [1,22]. C-reactive protein has been found to be a good biomarker of cardiovascular events and mortality both in the patient with and without renal disease [23]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Dyslipidemia is common in chronic hemodialysis patients and its underlying mechanism is complex. Hemodialysis causes an imbalance between antioxidants and production of reactive oxygen species, which induces the oxidative stress and thereby may lead to accelerated atherosclerosis. Statins have been found to be little effective in end-stage kidney disease and other lipid-lowering therapies have been only scarcely studied. The study aimed to assess the effect of low-dose fenofibrate therapy on plasma lipids and redox status in long-term hemodialysis patients with mild hypertriglyceridemia. Twenty seven chronic hemodialysis patients without any lipid-lowering therapy were included in a double-blind crossover, placebo-controlled study. The patients were randomized into two groups and were given a sequence of either 100 mg of fenofibrate per each hemodialysis day for 4 weeks or placebo with a week-long wash-out period between treatment periods. Plasma lipids, high sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP), urea, creatinine, electrolytes, phosphocreatine kinase (CK), GOT, GPT and plasma thiols (total and free glutathione, homocysteine, cysteine and cysteinylglycine) were measured at baseline and after each of the study periods. Plasma aminothiols were measured by reversed phase HPLC with thiol derivatization with 2-chloro-1-methylquinolinium tetrafluoroborate. Fenofibrate therapy caused a significant decrease of total serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides and an increase of HDL cholesterol. The treatment was well tolerated with no side-effects but there was a small but significant increase of CK not exceeding the upper limit of normal range. There were no changes of serum CRP, potassium, urea, and creatinine and liver enzymes during the treatment. Neither total nor total free cysteinylglycine and cysteine changed during the study but both total and free glutathione increased during the therapy with fenofibrate and the same was observed in case of plasma homocysteine. The study shows that a treatment with reduced fenofibrate dose is safe and effective in reducing serum triglycerides and cholesterol in chronic dialysis patients and may shift plasma aminothiol balance towards a more antioxidative pattern.
    Lipids in Health and Disease 05/2012; 11(1):47. DOI:10.1186/1476-511X-11-47 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Several morphological and functional tests are available to assess the cardiovascular system. Since structural and functional cardiovascular abnormalities have prognostic implications, their identification may become crucial for the implementation of effective preventive and therapeutic strategies. We review the most frequently used imaging methods to investigate structural and functional cardiovascular changes in patients with chronic kidney disease.
    Blood Purification 01/2011; 31(1-3):130-7. DOI:10.1159/000321839 · 1.28 Impact Factor
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