Food insecurity is considered to be an important contributor to HIV associated wasting in sub-Saharan Africa. Low body mass index (BMI) is a strong risk factor for early mortality during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Nutritional supplementation has become standard of care in wasted patients starting ART in many countries in the region, but there is no unequivocal evidence base for this intervention. Against this background, we performed a retrospective study to compare food supplementation versus no nutritional intervention in wasted adults starting ART in Blantyre, Malawi. All patients received free nevirapine, lamivudine, and stavudine. Participants in an effectiveness trial of two food supplements received either corn-soy blend (CSB) or ready-to-use food spread (RUFS) during the first 14 weeks of ART. Results were compared with a historical control group receiving no food supplement that was part of an observational cohort study of outcomes of the same ART regimen. Characteristics on initiation of ART were similar in the three groups, except the use of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis which was more frequent in the food-supplemented groups. Linear regression analysis showed that increase in BMI was greatest in the RUFS group and better in the CSB group than in those receiving no food supplementation at 14 weeks. These differences were no longer significant at 26 weeks. Lower BMI, CD4 count and hemoglobin, WHO clinical stage IV, male gender, and not receiving cotrimoxazole prophylaxis were independent risk factors for mortality at 14 and 26 weeks in the logistic regression analysis. Supplementary food use was not directly associated with improved survival.
"Studies have reported that ART improves BMI while nutritional supplementation further increases BMI [15,27,34,35]. We continued to observe a difference in BMI between the 2 arms 6 months after the completion of the study or 12 months after ART initiation. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Challenges to HIV care in resource limited settings (RLS) include malnutrition. Limited evidence supports the benefit of nutritional supplementation when starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in RLS.
Randomized controlled pilot study. HIV-positive ART-naive adults with self-reported weight loss were randomized to receive ART plus FutureLife porridge nutritional supplement (NS) (388 kcal/day) or ART alone (Controls) for 6 months. Patients returned for monthly assessments and blood was drawn at enrolment and 6 months on ART. Differences in body composition, biochemical and laboratory parameters were estimated at 6 months on treatment.
Of the 36 randomized patients, 26 completed the 6 month follow-up (11 NS vs 15 Controls). At enrolment, groups were similar in terms of age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and bioelectrical impedance. NS patients had a lower median CD4 count (60 cells/mm3 [IQR 12-105 vs. 107 cells/mm3 [IQR 63-165]; p = 0.149) and hemoglobin (10.3 g/dL [IQR 9.0-11.3] vs. 13.1 g/dL [IQR 11.1-14.7]; p = 0.001).
Preliminary results are encouraging and suggest that NS taken concurrently with ART can promote weight gain, improve immune response and improve physical activity in HIV-positive patients that present at ART initiation with weight loss.
"Following this lead, food aid programs have started targeting people infected and affected by HIV with short-term interventions providing supplemental food rations lasting between 6 and 12 months. Recent research has found the benefits of food supplementation to include increased physical strength and increased ability to tolerate both antiretroviral medication regimens and activities of daily living , , , . However, while food supplementation can help temporarily alleviate the nutritional deficit that often accompanies food insecurity and advanced AIDS, it may fail to affect other important aspects of food insecurity, including persistent anxiety about the stability of food supplies and the need to obtain food in a socially acceptable manner. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the last decade, health, nutrition and policy experts have become increasingly aware of the many ways in which food insecurity and HIV infection negatively impact and reinforce one another. In response, many organizations providing HIV care began supplying food aid to clients in need. Food supplementation, however, was quickly recognized as an unsustainable and incomplete intervention. Many HIV care organizations therefore developed integrated HIV and livelihood programs (IHLPs) to target the root causes of food insecurity.
We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 21 key informants who worked at seven organizations providing HIV care, food aid, or IHLPs in Kampala, Uganda in 2007-2008 to better understand the impact of IHLPs on the well-being of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHAs) and the challenges in transitioning clients from food aid to IHLPs. There was strong consensus among those interviewed that IHLPs are an important intervention in addressing food insecurity and its adverse health consequences among PLWHAs. Key informants identified three main challenges in transitioning PLWHAs from food supplementation programs to IHLPs: (1) lack of resources (2) timing of the transition and (3) logistical considerations including geography and weather. Factors seen as contributing to the success of programs included: (1) close involvement of community leaders (2) close ties with local and national government (3) diversification of IHLP activities and (4) close integration with food supplementation programs, all linked through a central program of HIV care.
Health, policy and development experts should continue to strengthen IHLPs for participants in need. Further research is needed to determine when and how participants should be transitioned from food supplementation to IHLPs, and to determine how to better correlate measures of food insecurity with objective clinical outcomes so as to better evaluate program results.
PLoS ONE 10/2011; 6(10):e26117. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0026117 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wasting and food insecurity are commonly seen in patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia, and supplementary feeding is often offered in conjunction with ART. Evidence for the effectiveness of such supplementary feeding is scant. A randomised, investigator-blinded, controlled clinical trial of two types of supplementary food, corn/soy blended flour and a ready-to-use peanut butter-based lipid paste, in wasted adults in Blantyre, Malawi is described and the results summarised. A historical control group who did not receive supplementary food is described as well. Provision of about half of the daily energy requirement as a supplementary food for 14 weeks resulted in more rapid restoration of a normal BMI; and the energy-dense, ready-to-use paste was associated with more rapid weight gain than the blended flour. Survival was similar among the 3 groups. The strong association between lower BMI and survival indirectly suggests that there may well be clinical benefit from supplementary feeding in this population. No differences were seen in ART adherence or quality of life with more rapid restoration of BMI. Further research is urgently needed concerning the widespread practice of supplementary feeding in HIV/AIDS care to most effectively utilize this intervention.
Malawi medical journal: the journal of Medical Association of Malawi 06/2010; 22(2):46-8. DOI:10.4314/mmj.v22i2.58792 · 0.38 Impact Factor
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