The benefit of supplementary feeding for wasted Malawian adults initiating ART.
ABSTRACT Food insecurity is considered to be an important contributor to HIV associated wasting in sub-Saharan Africa. Low body mass index (BMI) is a strong risk factor for early mortality during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Nutritional supplementation has become standard of care in wasted patients starting ART in many countries in the region, but there is no unequivocal evidence base for this intervention. Against this background, we performed a retrospective study to compare food supplementation versus no nutritional intervention in wasted adults starting ART in Blantyre, Malawi. All patients received free nevirapine, lamivudine, and stavudine. Participants in an effectiveness trial of two food supplements received either corn-soy blend (CSB) or ready-to-use food spread (RUFS) during the first 14 weeks of ART. Results were compared with a historical control group receiving no food supplement that was part of an observational cohort study of outcomes of the same ART regimen. Characteristics on initiation of ART were similar in the three groups, except the use of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis which was more frequent in the food-supplemented groups. Linear regression analysis showed that increase in BMI was greatest in the RUFS group and better in the CSB group than in those receiving no food supplementation at 14 weeks. These differences were no longer significant at 26 weeks. Lower BMI, CD4 count and hemoglobin, WHO clinical stage IV, male gender, and not receiving cotrimoxazole prophylaxis were independent risk factors for mortality at 14 and 26 weeks in the logistic regression analysis. Supplementary food use was not directly associated with improved survival.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although numerous studies have shown that severe to moderate wasting at the time of antiretroviral therapy initiation is strongly predictive of mortality, it remains unclear whether nutritional interventions at or before antiretroviral therapy initiation will improve outcomes. This review examines data on nutrition assessment, counseling, and support interventions in resource-limited settings. We identified articles published between 2005 and 2014 on the effectiveness of nutrition assessment, counseling, and support interventions, particularly its impact on 5 outcomes: mortality, morbidity, retention in care, quality of life, and/or prevention of ongoing HIV transmission. We rated the overall quality of individual articles and summarized the body of evidence and expected impact for each outcome. Twenty-one articles met all inclusion criteria. The overall quality of evidence was weak, predominantly because of few studies being designed to directly address the question of interest. Only 2 studies were randomized trials with no food support control groups. The remainder were randomized studies of one type of food support versus another, cohort (nonrandomized) studies, or single-arm studies. Ratings of individual study quality ranged from "medium" to "weak," and the quality of the overall body of evidence ranged from "fair" to "poor." We rated the expected impact on all outcomes as "uncertain." Rigorous better designed studies in resource-limited settings are urgently needed to understand the effectiveness of nutrition assessment and counseling alone, as well as studies to understand better modalities of food support (targeting, timing, composition, form, and duration) to improve both short- and long-term patient retention in care and treatment, and clinical outcomes.JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 04/2015; 68 Suppl 3:S340-S349. DOI:10.1097/QAI.0000000000000521 · 4.39 Impact Factor
- The Lancet HIV 03/2015; 2(4). DOI:10.1016/S2352-3018(15)00005-3
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Challenges to HIV care in resource limited settings (RLS) include malnutrition. Limited evidence supports the benefit of nutritional supplementation when starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in RLS. Randomized controlled pilot study. HIV-positive ART-naive adults with self-reported weight loss were randomized to receive ART plus FutureLife porridge(R) nutritional supplement (NS) (388 kcal/day) or ART alone (Controls) for 6 months. Patients returned for monthly assessments and blood was drawn at enrolment and 6 months on ART. Differences in body composition, biochemical and laboratory parameters were estimated at 6 months on treatment. Of the 36 randomized patients, 26 completed the 6 month follow-up (11 NS vs 15 Controls). At enrolment, groups were similar in terms of age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and bioelectrical impedance. NS patients had a lower median CD4 count (60 cells/mm3 [IQR 12--105 vs 107 cells/mm3 [IQR 63--165]; p = 0.149) and haemoglobin (10.3 g/dL [IQR 9.0-11.3] vs 13.1 g/dL [IQR 11.1-14.7]; p = 0.001).At 6 months, NS patients increased their median CD4 count by 151 cells/mm3 [IQR 120--174) vs 77 cells/mm3 [IQR 33--145] in the Controls. NS patients had higher mean percentage change in body weight (12.7% vs 4.9%; p = 0.047), BMI (7.8% vs 5.5%; p = 0.007), absolute CD4 count (83.0% vs 46.4%, p = 0.002) and hemoglobin (9.5% vs 1.0%; p = 0.026). Patients in the NS arm had a higher mean percentage fat-free mass (16.7% vs -3.5%, p = 0.036), total body water (13.0% vs -1.9%, p = 0.026), intracellular water (16.1% vs -4.1%, p = 0.010) and basal metabolic rate (5.3% vs -0.2%, p = 0.014) compared to Controls. Patients in the NS arm also showed an improvement in physical activity at 6 months post-ART initiation compared to Controls (p = 0.037). Preliminary results are encouraging and suggest that NS taken concurrently with ART can promote weight gain, improve immune response and improve physical activity in HIV-positive patients that present at ART initiation with weight loss.Nutrition Journal 08/2013; 12(1):111. DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-12-111 · 2.64 Impact Factor