Pressure ulcers: development and psychometric evaluation of the attitude towards pressure ulcer prevention instrument (APuP).
ABSTRACT Pressure ulcers continue to be a significant problem in hospitals, nursing homes and community care settings. Pressure ulcer incidence is widely accepted as an indicator for the quality of care. Negative attitudes towards pressure ulcer prevention may result in suboptimal preventive care. A reliable and valid instrument to assess attitudes towards pressure ulcer prevention is lacking.
Development and psychometric evaluation of the Attitude towards Pressure ulcer Prevention instrument (APuP).
Prospective psychometric instrument validation study.
A literature review was performed to design the instrument. Content validity was evaluated by nine European pressure ulcer experts and five experts in psychometric instrument validation in a double Delphi procedure. A convenience sample of 258 nurses and 291 nursing students from Belgium and The Netherlands participated in order to evaluate construct validity and stability reliability of the instrument. The data were collected between February and May 2008.
A factor analysis indicated the construct of a 13 item instrument in a five factor solution: (1) attitude towards personal competency to prevent pressure ulcers (three items); (2) attitude towards the priority of pressure ulcer prevention (three items); (3) attitude towards the impact of pressure ulcers (three items); (4) attitude towards personal responsibility in pressure ulcer prevention (two items); and (5) attitude towards confidence in the effectiveness of prevention (two items). This five factor solution accounted for 61.4% of the variance in responses related to attitudes towards pressure ulcer prevention. All items demonstrated factor loadings over 0.60. The instrument produced similar results during stability testing [ICC=0.88 (95% CI=0.84-0.91, P<0.001)]. For the total instrument, the internal consistency (Cronbachs alpha) was 0.79.
The APuP is a psychometrically sound instrument that can be used to effectively assess attitudes towards pressure ulcer prevention in patient care, education, and research. In further research, the association between attitude, knowledge and clinical performance should be explored.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Patients in hospitals and nursing homes are at risk for the development of often preventable adverse events. Guidelines for the prevention of many types of adverse events are available, however compliance with these guidelines appears to be lacking. As a result many patients do not receive appropriate care. We developed a patient safety program that allows organisations to implement multiple guidelines simultaneously and therefore facilitates guideline use to improve patient safety. This program was developed for three frequently occurring nursing care related adverse events: pressure ulcers, urinary tract infections and falls. For the implementation of this program we developed educational activities for nurses as a main implementation strategy. The aim of this study is to describe the effect of interactive and tailored education on the knowledge levels of nurses. A cluster randomised trial was conducted between September 2006 and July 2008. Ten hospital wards and ten nursing home wards participated in this study. Prior to baseline, randomisation of the wards to an intervention or control group was stratified for centre and type of ward. All nurses from participating wards. A knowledge test measured nurses' knowledge on the prevention of pressure ulcers, urinary tract infections and falls, during baseline en follow-up. The results were analysed for hospitals and nursing homes separately. After correction for baseline, the mean difference between the intervention and the control group on hospital nurses' knowledge on the prevention of the three adverse events was 0.19 points on a zero to ten scale (95% CI: -0.03 to 0.42), in favour of the intervention group. There was a statistically significant effect on knowledge of pressure ulcers, with an improved mean mark of 0.45 points (95% CI: 0.10-0.81). For the other two topics there was no statistically significant effect. Nursing home nurses' knowledge did neither improve (0 points, CI: -0.35 to 0.35) overall, nor for the separate subjects. The educational intervention improved hospital nurses' knowledge on the prevention of pressure ulcers only. More research on long term improvement of knowledge is needed.International journal of nursing studies 03/2010; 47(9):1117-25. · 1.91 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Theories from social and behavioural science can make an important contribution to the process of developing a conceptual framework for improving use of clinical practice guidelines and clinician performance. A conceptual framework for guideline dissemination and implementation is presented which draws on relevant concepts from diffusion of innovation theory, the transtheoretical model of behaviour change, health education theory, social influence theory, and social ecology, as well as evidence from systematic literature reviews on the effectiveness of various behaviour change strategies. The framework emphasises the need for preimplementation assessment of (a) readiness of clinicians to adopt guidelines into practice, (b) barriers to change as experienced by clinicians, and (c) the level at which interventions should be targeted. It also incorporates the need for multifaceted interventions, identifies the type of barriers which will be addressed by each strategy, and develops the concept of progression through stages of guideline adoption by clinicians, with the use of appropriately targeted support strategies. The potential value of the model is that it may enable those involved in the process of guideline dissemination and implementation to direct strategies to target groups more effectively. Clearly, the effectiveness and utility of the model in facilitating guideline dissemination and implementation requires validation by further empirical research. Until such research is available, it provides a theoretical framework that may assist in the selection of appropriate guideline dissemination and implementation strategies.Quality in Health Care 10/1999; 8(3):177-83.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pressure ulcers are one of the most frequently registered complications in general surgery. To obtain insight into the incidence, cause, and consequences of pressure ulcers and to evaluate the value of pressure ulcer registration to assess quality of care. During the 9-year study period, 275 pressure ulcers were registered (5.8% of total registered complications). Age and female sex were independent risk factors for pressure ulcer development. Pressure ulcer classification was as follows: mild (53.3%), moderate (35.6%), severe (9.5%), and irreversible damage (1.5%). Patients undergoing hip surgery and major limb amputation were at risk for pressure ulcer development (10.4% and 8.8%, respectively). In most patients (89.5%), pressure ulcers had no consequences other than local wound therapy; in 12 patients (4.4%), pressure ulceration led to alteration in medication; in 15 patients (5.5%), length of hospital stay was prolonged; and four patients (0.4%) suffered from irreversible damage. The incidence of pressure ulcers is strongly correlated to sex, age, and indication of admittance. Most ulcers were classified as mild and had no consequences. The insight obtained into incidence, cause, and consequences of pressure ulcers can be used as an indicator of quality of provided care if adjusted for case mix and indication of operation.Dermatologic Surgery 10/2009; 35(11):1797-803. · 1.87 Impact Factor