Hypertension and atrial fibrillation: evidence of progressive atrial remodeling with electrostructural correlate in a conscious chronically instrumented ovine model.
ABSTRACT Hypertension accounts for more atrial fibrillation (AF) than any other predisposing factor.
The purpose of this study was to characterize the time course, extent, and electrostructural correlation of atrial remodeling in chronic hypertension.
Thirty-two sheep were studied: 21 with induced "one-kidney, one-clip" hypertension and 11 controls. Sequential closed-chest electrophysiologic studies were performed in 12 conscious animals (6 hypertensive, 6 controls) to evaluate progressive remodeling over 15 weeks. Additional atrial structural/functional analyses were performed in 5 controls and at 5, 10, and 15 weeks of hypertension (five per time point) via histology/cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to correlate with open-chest electrophysiologic parameters.
The hypertensive group developed a progressive increase in mean arterial pressure (P <.001). Mean effective refractory periods were uniformly higher at all time points (P <.001). Progressive biatrial hypertrophy (P = .003), left atrial dysfunction (P <.05) and greater AF inducibility were seen early with increased inflammation from 5 weeks of hypertension. In contrast, significant conduction slowing (P <.001) with increased heterogeneity (P <.001) along with increased interstitial fibrosis resulted in longer and more fractionated AF episodes only from 10 weeks of hypertension. Significant electrostructural correlation was seen in conduction abnormalities and AF inducibility with both atrial inflammation and fibrosis.
Hypertension is associated with early and progressive changes in atrial remodeling. Atrial remodeling occurs at different time domains in chronic hypertension with significant electrostructural correlation of the remodeling cascade. Early institution of antihypertensive treatment may prevent formation of substrate capable of maintaining AF.
- SourceAvailable from: Pawel Kuklik[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To characterize the atrial remodelling in mitral stenosis (MS). Twenty-four patients with severe MS undergoing commissurotomy and 24 controls were studied. Electrophysiological evaluation was performed in 12 patients in each group by positioning multi-electrode catheters in both atria to determine the following: effective refractory period (ERP) at 10 sites at 600 and 450 ms; conduction time; conduction delay at the crista terminalis (CT); and vulnerability for atrial fibrillation (AF). P-wave duration (PWD) was determined on the surface ECG. In the remaining 12 patients in each group, electroanatomic maps of both atria were created to determine conduction velocity and identify regions of low voltage and electrical silence. Patients with MS had larger left atria (LA) (P < 0.0001); prolonged PWD (P = 0.0007); prolonged ERP in both LA (P < 0.0001) and right atria (RA) (P < 0.0001); reduced conduction velocity in the LA (P = 0.009) and RA (P < 0.0001); greater number (P < 0.0001) and duration (P< 0.0001) of bipoles along the CT with delayed conduction; lower atrial voltage in the LA (P < 0.0001) and RA (P < 0.0001); and more frequent electrical scar (P = 0.001) compared with controls. Five of twelve with MS and none of the controls developed AF with extra-stimulus (P = 0.02). Atrial remodelling in MS is characterized by LA enlargement, loss of myocardium, and scarring associated with widespread and site-specific conduction abnormalities and no change or an increase in ERP. These abnormalities were associated with a heightened inducibility of AF.European Heart Journal 07/2008; 29(18):2234-43. · 14.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The normal sinus pacemaker complex is an extensive structure within the right atrium. We hypothesized that patients with sinus node disease (SND) would have evidence of diffuse atrial abnormalities. Sixteen patients with symptomatic SND and 16 age-matched controls were studied. The following were evaluated: effective refractory periods (ERPs) from the high and low lateral right atrium (RA), high septal RA, and distal coronary sinus (CS); conduction time along the CS and lateral RA; P-wave duration; and conduction at the crista terminalis. Electroanatomic mapping was performed to define the sinus node complex and determine regional conduction velocity, double potentials, fractionated electrograms, regional voltage, and areas of electrical silence. Patients with SND demonstrated significant increase in atrial ERP at all right atrial sites, increased atrial conduction time along the lateral RA and CS, prolongation of the P-wave duration, and greater number and duration of double potentials along the crista terminalis. Electroanatomic mapping demonstrated the sinus node complex in SND to be more often unicentric, localized to the low crista terminalis at the site of the largest residual voltage amplitude. There was significant regional conduction slowing with double potentials and fractionation associated with areas of low voltage and electrical silence (or scar). SND is associated with diffuse atrial remodeling characterized by structural change, conduction abnormalities, and increased right atrial refractoriness. There was a change in the nature of sinus pacemaker activity with loss of the normal multicentric pattern of activation, caudal shift of the pacemaker complex, and abnormal and circuitous conduction around lines of conduction block.Circulation 04/2004; 109(12):1514-22. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mechanisms of the atrial contractile dysfunction induced by atrial fibrillation (AF) are not completely understood. In particular, the relation between the atrial dysfunction and electrical remodeling has not yet been studied. Seven goats were chronically instrumented with electrodes sutured to the atria and with ultrasonic piezoelectric crystals to record the atrial diameters. A pressure transducer was implanted in the right atrium. After 5 minutes, 3 hours, and throughout the first 5 days of artificially maintained AF, atrial contractile function was measured and the atrial effective refractory period (AERP) was monitored for comparison. Also, the positive inotropic effects of the L-type Ca2+-channel agonist BayY5959 and short trains of rapid atrial pacing were studied. After resumption of sinus rhythm, the recovery of atrial contractile function was followed. After 5 minutes of AF, atrial contractility was decreased by approximately 55% but recovered completely within 10 minutes. Five days of AF nearly completely abolished the atrial contractile function, and recovery took 2 days. During the first days of AF, the development of the contractile dysfunction followed the same time course as the shortening of AERP (electrical remodeling). In remodeled atria, BayY5959 increased atrial contractility to the same extent as it prolonged AERP. The inotropic effect of short trains of rapid atrial pacing was similar in normal and remodeled atria. Depending on the duration of AF, different mechanisms contribute to the AF-induced atrial hypocontractility. Atrial contractile remodeling during several days of AF goes hand in hand with electrical remodeling and might be caused by a reduction of the L-type Ca2+-current.Circulation 04/2003; 107(10):1433-9. · 15.20 Impact Factor