Interleukin (IL)-21-independent pathogen-specific CD8+ T-cell expansion, and IL-21-dependent suppression of CD4+ T-cell IL-17 production.
ABSTRACT Although interleukin-21 (IL-21) potently activates and controls the differentiation of immune cells after stimulation in vitro, the role for this pleiotropic cytokine during in vivo infection remains poorly defined. Herein, the requirement for IL-21 in innate and adaptive host defence after Listeria monocytogenes infection was examined. In the innate phase, IL-21 deficiency did not cause significant defects in infection susceptibility, or in the early activation of natural killer and T cells. In the adaptive phase, L. monocytogenes-specific CD8(+) T cells expand to a similar magnitude in IL-21-deficient mice compared with control mice. Interestingly, the IL-21-independent expansion of L. monocytogenes-specific CD8(+) T cells was maintained even in the combined absence of IL-12 and type I interferon (IFN) receptor. Similarly, L. monocytogenes-specific CD4(+) T cells expanded and produced similar levels of IFN-γ regardless of IL-21 deficiency. Unexpectedly however, IL-21 deficiency caused significantly increased CD4(+) T-cell IL-17 production, and this effect became even more pronounced after L. monocytogenes infection in mice with combined defects in both IL-12 and type I IFN receptor that develop a T helper type 17-dominated CD4(+) T-cell response. Despite increased CD4(+) T-cell IL-17 production, L. monocytogenes-specific T cells re-expanded and conferred protection against secondary challenge with virulent L. monocytogenes regardless of IL-21 deficiency, or combined defects in IL-21, IL-12, and type I IFN receptor. Together, these results demonstrate non-essential individual and combined roles for IL-21, IL-12 and type I IFNs in priming pathogen-specific CD8(+) T cells, and reveal IL-21-dependent suppression of IL-17 production by CD4(+) T cells during in vivo infection.
Article: Microvascular dilation in response to occlusion: a coordinating role for conducted vasomotor responses.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In rat cremasteric microcirculation, mechanical occlusion of one branch of an arteriolar bifurcation causes an increase in flow and vasodilation of the unoccluded daughter branch. This dilation has been attributed to the operation of a shear stress-dependent mechanism in the microcirculation. Instead of or in addition to this, we hypothesized that the dilation observed during occlusion is the result of a conducted signal originating distal to the occlusion. To test this hypothesis, we blocked the ascending spread of conducted vasomotor responses by damaging the smooth muscle and endothelial cells in a 200-microm segment of second- or third-order arterioles. We found that a conduction blockade eliminated or diminished the occlusion-associated increase in flow through the unoccluded branch and abolished or strongly attenuated the vasodilatory response in both vessels at the branch. We also noted that vasodilations induced by ACh (10(-4) M, 0.6 s) spread to, but not beyond, the area of damage. Taken together, these data provide strong evidence that conducted vasomotor responses have an important role in coordinating blood flow in response to an arteriolar occlusion.AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 08/2000; 279(1):H279-84. · 3.71 Impact Factor