Abiraterone acetate (CB7630), a pregnenolone analog, is an orally administered small molecule that irreversibly inhibits a rate-limiting enzyme in androgen biosynthesis, CYP17, and blocks the synthesis of androgens in the testes, adrenal glands and prostate without causing adrenal insufficiency. In clinical studies, abiraterone acetate is well tolerated and shows promising clinical activity in castration-resistant prostate cancer. The recommended Phase II dose of abiraterone acetate is 1000 mg orally daily in combination with prednisone 5 mg twice daily. Side effects are minimal and mostly associated with secondary mineralocorticoid excess, owing to a compensatory increase in upstream steroids, such as deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone. These include hypertension, hypokalemia and edema and are easily manageable with a selective mineralocorticoid antagonist, such as eplerenone, or low-dose corticosteroids. Currently, abiraterone acetate is being tested in a Phase III trial for men with progressive castration-resistant prostate cancer who are chemotherapy naive. A Phase III trial for patients following prior chemotherapy has been completed and is awaiting analysis.
"Abiraterone functions through disruption of critical steps of androgen formation by direct inhibition of CYP17 activity. This results in reduced levels of circulating androgen and slower progression of prostate cancer in castrate-resistant patients (O'Donnell et al, 2004; Agarwal et al, 2010). Thus, combining cabazitaxel and abiraterone acetate, allows us to target multiple pathways in mCRPC, while also eliminating Pgp mediated drug resistance. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Taxanes are routinely used for the treatment of prostate cancer, however the majority of patients eventually develop resistance. We investigated the potential efficacy of EL102, a novel toluidine sulphonamide, in pre-clinical models of prostate cancer.
The effect of EL102 and/or docetaxel on PC-3, DU145, 22Rv1 and CWR22 prostate cancer cells was assessed using cell viability, cell cycle analysis and PARP cleavage assays. Tubulin polymerisation and immunofluorescence assays were used to assess tubulin dynamics. CWR22 xenograft murine model was used to assess effects on tumour proliferation. Multidrug-resistant lung cancer DLKPA was used to assess EL102 in a MDR1-mediated drug resistance background.
EL102 has in vitro activity against prostate cancer, characterised by accumulation in G2/M, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of Hif1α, and inhibition of tubulin polymerisation and decreased microtubule stability. In vivo, a combination of EL102 and docetaxel exhibits superior tumour inhibition. The DLKP cell line and multidrug-resistant DLKPA variant (which exhibits 205 to 691-fold greater resistance to docetaxel, paclitaxel, vincristine and doxorubicin) are equally sensitive to EL102.
EL102 shows potential as both a single agent and within combination regimens for the treatment of prostate cancer, particularly in the chemoresistance setting.
British Journal of Cancer 09/2013; 109(8). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2013.537 · 4.84 Impact Factor
"Several mechanisms have been identified to explain persistent androgen signaling in CRPC  , including increased AR gene expression, mutation of the AR gene, or upregulation of enzymes involved in androgen synthesis    . Cytochrome P450 17 alpha-hydroxylase and C17,20-lyase (CYP17) are the critical enzymes for synthesis of androgens in the adrenal glands and prostate tumors . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with medical or surgical castration is the mainstay of therapy in men with metastatic prostate cancer. However, despite initial responses, almost all men eventually develop castration refractory metastatic prostate cancer (CRPC) and die of their disease. Over the last decade, it has been recognized that despite the failure of ADT, most prostate cancers maintain some dependence on androgen and/or androgen receptor (AR) signaling for proliferation. Furthermore, androgen independent molecular pathways have been identified as drivers of continued progression of CRPC. Subsequently, drugs have been developed targeting these pathways, many of which have received regulatory approval. Agents such as abiraterone, enzalutamide, orteronel (TAK-700), and ARN-509 target androgen signaling. Sipuleucel-T, ipilimumab, and tasquinimod augment immune-mediated tumor killing. Agents targeting classic tumorogenesis pathways including vascular endothelial growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, insulin like growth factor-1, tumor suppressor, and those which regulate apoptosis and cell cycles are currently being developed. This paper aims to focus on emerging molecular pathways underlying progression of CRPC, and the drugs targeting these pathways, which have recently been approved or have reached advanced stages of development in either phase II or phase III clinical trials.
"This drug has been shown to have activity in mCRPC with acceptable toxicity in phase 1 studies . Principle side effects associated with this agent include hypertension, hypokalemia, and edema, which appear to be manageable with mineralocorticoid antagonists or low-dose corticosteroids [36,38]. In COU-AA-301, both fluid retention (30.5% vs 22.3%) and hypokalemia (17.1% vs 8.4%) were more common with AA compared with placebo, whereas grade 3 and 4 hypokalemia (3.8% vs 0.8%) and hypertension (1.3% vs 0.3%) were observed infrequently . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the proven success of hormonal therapy for prostate cancer using chemical or surgical castration, most patients eventually will progress to a phase of the disease that is metastatic and shows resistance to further hormonal manipulation. This has been termed metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Despite this designation, however, there is evidence that androgen receptor (AR)-mediated signaling and gene expression can persist in mCRPC, even in the face of castrate levels of androgen. This may be due in part to the upregulation of enzymes involved in androgen synthesis, the overexpression of AR, or the emergence of mutant ARs with promiscuous recognition of various steroidal ligands. The therapeutic options were limited and palliative in nature until trials in 2004 demonstrated that docetaxel chemotherapy could significantly improve survival. These results established first-line docetaxel as the standard of care for mCRPC. After resistance to further docetaxel therapy develops, treatment options were once again limited. Recently reported results from phase 3 trials have shown that additional therapy with the novel taxane cabazitaxel (with prednisone), or treatment with the antiandrogen abiraterone (with prednisone) could improve survival for patients with mCRPC following docetaxel therapy. Compared with mitoxantrone/prednisone, cabazitaxel/prednisone significantly improved overall survival, with a 30% reduction in rate of death, in patients with progression of mCRPC after docetaxel therapy in the TROPIC trial. Similarly, abiraterone acetate (an inhibitor of androgen biosynthesis) plus prednisone significantly decreased the rate of death by 35% compared with placebo plus prednisone in mCRPC patients progressing after prior docetaxel therapy in the COU-AA-301 trial. Results of these trials have thus established two additional treatment options for mCRPC patients in the "post-docetaxel space." In view of the continued AR-mediated signaling on mCRPC, results from additional phase 3 studies with novel antiandrogens which are directed at inhibition of the AR (e.g., MDV3100), as well as other agents, are awaited with interest and may further expand the treatment choices for this difficult-to-manage population of patients.
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