Article

Innate immunity in human embryonic stem cells: comparison with adult human endothelial cells.

National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.73). 01/2010; 5(5):e10501. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010501
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Treatment of human disease with human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived cells is now close to reality, but little is known of their responses to physiological and pathological insult. The ability of cells to respond via activation of Toll like receptors (TLR) is critical in innate immune sensing in most tissues, but also extends to more general danger sensing, e.g. of oxidative stress, in cardiomyocytes. We used biomarker release and gene-array analysis to compare responses in hESC before and after differentiation, and to those in primary human endothelial cells. The presence of cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells was confirmed in differentiated cultures by immunostaining, FACS-sorting and, for cardiomyocytes, beating activity. Undifferentiated hESC did not respond with CXCL8 release to Gram positive or Gram negative bacteria, or a range of PAMPs (pathogen associated molecular patterns) for TLRs 1-9 (apart from flagellin, an activator of TLR5). Surprisingly, lack of TLR-dependent responses was maintained over 4 months of differentiation of hESC, in cultures which included cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. In contrast, primary cultures of human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) demonstrated responses to a broad range of PAMPs. Expression of downstream TLR signalling pathways was demonstrated in hESC, and IL-1beta, TNFalpha and INFgamma, which bypass the TLRs, stimulated CXCL8 release. NFkappaB pathway expression was also present in hESC and NFkappaB was able to translocate to the nucleus. Low expression levels of TLRs were detected in hESC, especially TLRs 1 and 4, explaining the lack of response of hESC to the main TLR signals. TLR5 levels were similar between differentiated hESC and HAEC, and siRNA knockdown of TLR5 abolished the response to flagellin. These findings have potential implications for survival and function of grafted hESC-derived cells.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
104 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells (hESC-EC), as well as other stem cell derived endothelial cells, have a range of applications in cardiovascular research and disease treatment. Endothelial cells sense Gram-negative bacteria via the pattern recognition receptors (PRR) Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 and nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain-containing protein (NOD)-1. These pathways are important in terms of sensing infection, but TLR4 is also associated with vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. Here, we have compared TLR4 and NOD1 responses in hESC-EC with those of endothelial cells derived from other stem cells and with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). HUVEC, endothelial cells derived from blood progenitors (blood outgrowth endothelial cells; BOEC), and from induced pluripotent stem cells all displayed both a TLR4 and NOD1 response. However, hESC-EC had no TLR4 function, but did have functional NOD1 receptors. In vivo conditioning in nude rats did not confer TLR4 expression in hESC-EC. Despite having no TLR4 function, hESC-EC sensed Gram-negative bacteria, a response that was found to be mediated by NOD1 and the associated RIP2 signalling pathways. Thus, hESC-EC are TLR4 deficient but respond to bacteria via NOD1. This data suggests that hESC-EC may be protected from unwanted TLR4-mediated vascular inflammation, thus offering a potential therapeutic advantage.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e91119. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Monomethylation of lysine 4 on histone H3 (H3K4me1) is a well-established feature of enhancers and promoters, although its function is unknown. Here, we uncover roles for H3K4me1 in diverse cell types. Remarkably, we find that MLL3/4 provokes monomethylation of promoter regions and the conditional repression of muscle and inflammatory response genes in myoblasts. During myogenesis, muscle genes are activated, lose MLL3 occupancy, and become H3K4-trimethylated through an alternative COMPASS complex. Monomethylation-mediated repression was not restricted to skeletal muscle. Together with H3K27me3 and H4K20me1, H3K4me1 was associated with transcriptional silencing in embryonic fibroblasts, macrophages, and human embryonic stem cells (ESCs). On promoters of active genes, we find that H3K4me1 spatially demarcates the recruitment of factors that interact with H3K4me3, including ING1, which, in turn, recruits Sin3A. Our findings point to a unique role for H3K4 monomethylation in establishing boundaries that restrict the recruitment of chromatin-modifying enzymes to defined regions within promoters.
    Molecular cell 03/2014; 53(6):979-92. · 14.61 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have recently reported that mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) are deficient in expressing type I interferons (IFN) when exposed to viral infection and double-stranded RNA. In this study, we extended our investigation and demonstrated that single-stranded RNA and protein-encoding mRNA can induce strong IFN expression and cytotoxicity in fibroblasts and epithelial cells, but none of the effects associated with these antiviral responses were observed in mESCs. Our results provided additional data to support the conclusion that mESCs are intrinsically deficient in antiviral responses. While our findings represent a novel feature of mESCs that in itself is important for understanding innate immunity development, we exploited this property to develop a novel mRNA-mediated gene expression cell model. Direct introduction of synthetic mRNA to express desired genes has been shown as an effective alternative to DNA/viral vector-based gene expression. However, a major biological challenge is that a synthetic mRNA is detected as a viral RNA analog by the host cell, resulting in a series of adverse effects associated with antiviral responses. We demonstrate that the lack of antiviral responses in mESCs effectively avoids this problem. mESCs can tolerate repeated transfection and effectively express proteins from their synthetic mRNA with expected biological functions, as demonstrated by the expression of green fluorescent protein and the transcription factor Etv2. Therefore, mRNA-based gene expression could be developed into a novel ESC differentiation strategy that avoids safety concerns associated with viral/DNA-based vectors in regenerative medicine.
    Stem cells and development 11/2013; · 4.15 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
24 Downloads
Available from
May 27, 2014