Article

Pungent General Anesthetics Activate Transient Receptor Potential-A1 to Produce Hyperalgesia and Neurogenic Bronchoconstriction

Department of Anesthesia, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0427, USA.
Anesthesiology (Impact Factor: 6.17). 06/2010; 112(6):1452-63. DOI: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181d94e00
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Volatile anesthetics such as isoflurane and halothane have been in clinical use for many years and represent the group of drugs most commonly used to maintain general anesthesia. However, despite their widespread use, the molecular mechanisms by which these drugs exert their effects are not completely understood. Recently, a seemingly paradoxical effect of general anesthetics has been identified: the activation of peripheral nociceptors by irritant anesthetics. This mechanism may explain the hyperalgesic actions of inhaled anesthetics and their adverse effects in the airways.
To test the hypothesis that irritant inhaled anesthetics activate the excitatory ion-channel transient receptor potential (TRP)-A1 and thereby contribute to hyperalgesia and irritant airway effects, we used the measurement of intracellular calcium concentration in isolated cells in culture. For our functional experiments, we used models of isolated guinea pig bronchi to measure bronchoconstriction and withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation with von Frey filaments in mice.
Irritant inhaled anesthetics activate TRPA1 expressed in human embryonic kidney cells and in nociceptive neurons. Isoflurane induces mechanical hyperalgesia in mice by a TRPA1-dependent mechanism. Isoflurane also induces TRPA1-dependent constriction of isolated bronchi. Nonirritant anesthetics do not activate TRPA1 and fail to produce hyperalgesia and bronchial constriction.
General anesthetics induce a reversible loss of consciousness and render the patient unresponsive to painful stimuli. However, they also produce excitatory effects such as airway irritation and they contribute to postoperative pain. Activation of TRPA1 may contribute to these adverse effects, a hypothesis that remains to be tested in the clinical setting.

0 Followers
 · 
91 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The large Trp gene family encodes transient receptor potential (TRP) proteins that form novel cation-selective ion channels. In mammals, 28 Trp channel genes have been identified. TRP proteins exhibit diverse permeation and gating properties and are involved in a plethora of physiologic functions with a strong impact on cellular sensing and signaling pathways. Indeed, mutations in human genes encoding TRP channels, the so-called "TRP channelopathies," are responsible for a number of hereditary diseases that affect the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, genitourinary, and nervous systems. This review gives an overview of the functional properties of mammalian TRP channels, describes their roles in acquired and hereditary diseases, and discusses their potential as drug targets for therapeutic intervention.
    Pharmacological reviews 07/2014; 66(3):676-814. DOI:10.1124/pr.113.008268 · 18.55 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sensory nerves are equipped with receptors and ion channels that allow them to detect and respond to diverse chemical, mechanical, and thermal stimuli. These sensory proteins include G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels. A subclass of peptidergic sensory nerves express GPCRs and TRP channels that detect noxious, irritant, and inflammatory stimuli. Activation of these nerves triggers protective mechanisms that lead to withdrawal from danger (pain), removal of irritants (itch, cough), and resolution of infection (neurogenic inflammation). The GPCR-TRP axis is central to these mechanisms. Signals that emanate from the GPCR superfamily converge on the small TRP family, leading to channel sensitization and activation, which amplify pain, itch, cough, and neurogenic inflammation. Herein we discuss how GPCRs and TRP channels function independently and synergistically to excite sensory nerves that mediate noxious and irritant responses and inflammation in the skin and the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. We discuss the signaling mechanisms that underlie the GPCR-TRP axis and evaluate how new information about the structure of GPCRs and TRP channels provides insights into their functional interactions. We propose that a deeper understanding of the GPCR-TRP axis may facilitate the development of more selective and effective therapies to treat dysregulated processes that underlie chronic pain, itch, cough, and inflammation.
    Pharmacological reviews 01/2015; 67(1):36-73. DOI:10.1124/pr.114.009555 · 18.55 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction controls the airway caliber. Airway narrowing is exaggerated in obstructive lung diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The mechanism by which ASM tone is dysregulated in disease is not clearly understood. Recent research on ion channels, particularly transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1), is uncovering new understanding of altered airway function. TRPA1, a member of the TRP channel superfamily, is a chemo-sensitive cation channel that can be activated by a variety of external and internal stimuli, leading to the influx of Ca(2+). Functional TRPA1 channels have been identified in neuronal and non-neuronal tissues of the lung, including ASM. In the airways, these channels can regulate the release of mediators that are markers of airway inflammation in asthma and COPD. For, example, TRPA1 controls cigarette-smoke-induced inflammatory mediator release and Ca(2+) mobilization in vitro and in vivo, a response tied to disease pathology in COPD. Recent work has revealed that pharmacological or genetic inhibition of TRPA1 inhibits the allergen-induced airway inflammation in vitro and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) in vivo. Collectively, it appears that TRPA1 channels may be determinants of ASM contractility and local inflammation control, positioning them as part of novel mechanisms that control (patho)physiological function of airways and ASM.
    Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 01/2015; DOI:10.1139/cjpp-2014-0417 · 1.55 Impact Factor