Monocytes are resistant to apoptosis in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
Clinical Immunology (Impact Factor: 3.67). 05/2010; 136(2):257-68. DOI: 10.1016/j.clim.2010.04.003
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We investigated whether circulating monocytes from patients with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA) are resistant to apoptosis and which apoptotic pathway(s) may mediate this resistance. A microarray analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of SJIA samples and RT-PCR analysis of isolated monocytes showed that monocytes from active SJIA patients express transcripts that imply resistance to apoptosis. SJIA monocytes incubated in low serum show reduced annexin binding and diminished FasL up-regulation compared to controls. SJIA monocytes are less susceptible to anti-Fas-induced apoptosis and, upon activation of the mitochondrial pathway with staurosporine, show diminished Bid cleavage and Bcl-w down-regulation compared to controls. Exposure to SJIA plasma reduces responses to apoptotic triggers in normal monocytes. Thus, SJIA monocytes are resistant to apoptosis due to alterations in both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways, and circulating factors associated with active SJIA may confer this phenotype.

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    • "In monocytes from RA patients, SIA is significantly reduced [5]. Deficient spontaneous in vitro apoptosis has also been reported by other groups for peripheral monocytes from patients with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis [6] and for monocytic cells from the rheumatoid synovium [7,8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In vitro apoptosis of peripheral monocytes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is disturbed and influenced by cytokine production and transmembrane TNF (tmTNF) reverse signaling. The goal of the study was the analysis of the predictive value of the rate of in-vitro apoptosis for the therapeutic response to anti-TNF treatment. Spontaneous and tmTNF reverse signaling induced apoptosis were determined in-vitro in monocytes from 20 RA patients prior to initiation of therapeutic TNF inhibition with Etanercept, and the subsequent clinical response was monitored. Spontaneous in-vitro apoptosis was significantly reduced in RA patients compared to controls. Deficiency in spontaneous apoptosis was associated with an insufficient therapeutic response according to the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria and less reduction of the disease activity determined by disease activity score (DAS) 28. High susceptibility to reverse signaling-induced apoptosis was also associated with less efficient reduction in the DAS28. Of note, a strong negative correlation between the two apoptotic parameters was discernible, possibly indicative of two pathogenetically relevant processes counter-regulating each other.tmTNF reverse signaling induced in vitro production of soluble IL1-RI and IL-1RII only in monocytes not deficient in spontaneous apoptosis, and the levels of soluble IL1-RII were found to be predictive of a good clinical response to Etanercept. Although tmTNF reverse signaling is able to induce apoptosis of RA monocytes in vitro, this process appears to occur in vivo preferentially in patients with suboptimal therapeutic response. Resistance to spontaneous in-vitro apoptosis, in contrast, is a predictor of insufficient response to treatment.
    Arthritis research & therapy 12/2013; 15(6):R219. DOI:10.1186/ar4416 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    • "In a pilot study, paired flare/remission PBMC samples from 14 SJIA patients were processed for RNA as described [36] and analyzed using Lymphochip cDNA microarrays (Patrick Brown, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA) [37,38]. A large number of genes were identified as differentially expressed in flare versus remission samples by Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) [39]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Clinicians have long appreciated the distinct phenotype of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA) compared to polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (POLY). We hypothesized that gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from children with each disease would reveal distinct biological pathways when analyzed for significant associations with elevations in two markers of JIA activity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and number of affected joints (joint count, JC). Methods PBMC RNA from SJIA and POLY patients was profiled by kinetic PCR to analyze expression of 181 genes, selected for relevance to immune response pathways. Pearson correlation and Student's t-test analyses were performed to identify transcripts significantly associated with clinical parameters (ESR and JC) in SJIA or POLY samples. These transcripts were used to find related biological pathways. Results Combining Pearson and t-test analyses, we found 91 ESR-related and 92 JC-related genes in SJIA. For POLY, 20 ESR-related and 0 JC-related genes were found. Using Ingenuity Systems Pathways Analysis, we identified SJIA ESR-related and JC-related pathways. The two sets of pathways are strongly correlated. In contrast, there is a weaker correlation between SJIA and POLY ESR-related pathways. Notably, distinct biological processes were found to correlate with JC in samples from the earlier systemic plus arthritic phase (SAF) of SJIA compared to samples from the later arthritis-predominant phase (AF). Within the SJIA SAF group, IL-10 expression was related to JC, whereas lack of IL-4 appeared to characterize the chronic arthritis (AF) subgroup. Conclusions The strong correlation between pathways implicated in elevations of both ESR and JC in SJIA argues that the systemic and arthritic components of the disease are related mechanistically. Inflammatory pathways in SJIA are distinct from those in POLY course JIA, consistent with differences in clinically appreciated target organs. The limited number of ESR-related SJIA genes that also are associated with elevations of ESR in POLY implies that the SJIA associations are specific for SJIA, at least to some degree. The distinct pathways associated with arthritis in early and late SJIA raise the possibility that different immunobiology underlies arthritis over the course of SJIA.
    BMC Medicine 10/2012; 10(1):125. DOI:10.1186/1741-7015-10-125 · 7.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) has long been recognized as unique among childhood arthritides, because of its distinctive clinical and epidemiological features, including an association with macrophage activation syndrome. Here, we summarize research into sJIA pathogenesis. The triggers of disease are unknown, although infections are suspects. Once initiated, sJIA seems to be driven by innate proinflammatory cytokines. Endogenous Toll-like receptor ligands, including S100 proteins, probably synergize with cytokines to perpetuate inflammation. These and other findings support the hypothesis that sJIA is an autoinflammatory condition. Indeed, IL-1 is implicated as a pivotal cytokine, but the source of excess IL-1 activity remains obscure and the role of IL-1 in chronic arthritis is less clear. Another hypothesis is that a form of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis underlies sJIA, with varying degrees of its expression across the spectrum of disease. Alternatively, sJIA with MAS might be a genetically distinct subtype. Yet another hypothesis proposes that inadequate downregulation of immune activation is central to sJIA, supporting evidence for which includes 'alternative activation' of monocyte and macrophages and possible deficiencies in IL-10 and T regulatory cells. Some altered immune phenotypes persist during clinically inactive disease, which suggests that this stage might represent compensated inflammation. Despite much progress being made, many questions remain, providing fertile ground for future research.
    Nature Reviews Rheumatology 06/2011; 7(7):416-26. DOI:10.1038/nrrheum.2011.68 · 9.85 Impact Factor
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