Leukocytoclastic vasculitis and necrolytic acral erythema in patients with hepatitis C infection: Do viral load and viral genotype play a role?
ABSTRACT Leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV) and necrolytic acral erythema (NAE) are skin disorders associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, they have not been found to occur simultaneously in the same patient.
We sought to analyze the role of serum HCV-RNA levels and HCV genotype in the pathogenesis of both LCV and NAE in an attempt to assess whether these two parameters play a role in mutual exclusivity of LCV and NAE in the same patient.
The study included 11 patients with LCV and 13 with NAE, all of whom were infected with HCV. All 24 patients were evaluated for the quantitative levels of HCV-RNA, using real-time polymerase chain reaction. HCV genotyping was performed on 10 patients in each group (N = 20).
Patients with LCV had a higher prevalence of moderate and high levels of HCV-RNA viremia (P = .038) than those with NAE. However, there was no significant difference in HCV genotype between LCV and NAE groups (P = .211).
Small number of cases is a limitation.
Viral load seems to play a role in determining the response of the skin to HCV infection. High levels of HCV viremia were found to be significantly associated with LCV but not with NAE. HCV viremia may play a role in the development of LCV in HCV-infected patients.
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ABSTRACT: In 1996 el Darouti and Abu el Ela described seven Egyptian patients with similar cutaneous lesions and proposed necrolytic acral erythema (NAE) as a distinct entity of the necrolytic erythema family. Since then, NAE has emerged as a cutaneous manifestation of hepatitis C virus infection and taken its place in the literature as a marker for systemic disease. NAE initially presents with burning, pruritic eruptions of circumscribed, erythematous papules with flaccid vesiculation on the acral surfaces universally affecting the dorsum of the feet. The presenting papules of acute NAE evolve over time into confluent, velvety, hyperkeratotic plaques with decreased central erythema but a characteristic dark erythematous rim and adherent scale. Although mostly misdiagnosed as psoriasis or inflammatory dermatitis, NAE can be definitively placed among the necrolytic erythema family as a distinct entity based on clinical and histopathologic characteristics. We report a case of necrolytic acral erythema in a 17-year-old followed by a review of the literature.Pediatric Dermatology 10/2011; 28(6):701-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1525-1470.2011.01419.x · 1.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The complex and fascinating spectrum of inflammatory skin disease, and the comprehension of it, is ever expanding and evolving. During the first decade of the 21st century, numerous advances in the understanding of inflammatory disease mechanisms have occurred, particularly in psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Continuation of this trend will assure a future in which molecular tests for biomarkers of immediate clinical relevance are used in routine patient care, not only for diagnosis but also for prognosis and management. This article focuses on selected recent or noteworthy developments that are clinically relevant for the histologic diagnosis of inflammatory skin diseases.Dermatologic clinics 10/2012; 30(4):667-84. DOI:10.1016/j.det.2012.06.004 · 1.69 Impact Factor