The American College of Rheumatology Preliminary Diagnostic Criteria for Fibromyalgia and Measurement of Symptom Severity

National Data Bank for Rheumatic Diseases and University of Kansas School of Medicine, Wichita, KS 67214, USA.
Arthritis care & research 05/2010; 62(5):600-10. DOI: 10.1002/acr.20140
Source: PubMed


To develop simple, practical criteria for clinical diagnosis of fibromyalgia that are suitable for use in primary and specialty care and that do not require a tender point examination, and to provide a severity scale for characteristic fibromyalgia symptoms.
We performed a multicenter study of 829 previously diagnosed fibromyalgia patients and controls using physician physical and interview examinations, including a widespread pain index (WPI), a measure of the number of painful body regions. Random forest and recursive partitioning analyses were used to guide the development of a case definition of fibromyalgia, to develop criteria, and to construct a symptom severity (SS) scale.
Approximately 25% of fibromyalgia patients did not satisfy the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 1990 classification criteria at the time of the study. The most important diagnostic variables were WPI and categorical scales for cognitive symptoms, unrefreshed sleep, fatigue, and number of somatic symptoms. The categorical scales were summed to create an SS scale. We combined the SS scale and the WPI to recommend a new case definition of fibromyalgia: (WPI > or =7 AND SS > or =5) OR (WPI 3-6 AND SS > or =9).
This simple clinical case definition of fibromyalgia correctly classifies 88.1% of cases classified by the ACR classification criteria, and does not require a physical or tender point examination. The SS scale enables assessment of fibromyalgia symptom severity in persons with current or previous fibromyalgia, and in those to whom the criteria have not been applied. It will be especially useful in the longitudinal evaluation of patients with marked symptom variability.

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    • "Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome of unknown origin, estimated to affect 2–5% in all populations studied (Raspe, 1992; Wolfe et al., 1995; Assumpcao et al., 2009; Dhir et al., 2009). Fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread pain, fatigue, poor sleep, and dyscognition (Wolfe et al., 2010) and is often also associated with mood disorders such as depressive episodes and anxiety. Although the underlying pathophysiology is not entirely understood, fibromyalgia has been associated with augmented central nervous system (CNS) processing of nociceptive stimuli using both quantitative sensory testing (QST) and functional neuroimaging. "
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    ABSTRACT: Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome characterized by widespread pain, fatigue, and memory and mood disturbances. Despite advances in our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology, treatment is often challenging. New research indicates that changes in functional connectivity between brain regions, as can be measured by magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) of the resting state, may underlie the pathogenesis of this and other chronic pain states. As such, this parameter may be able to be used to monitor changes in brain function associated with pharmacological treatment, and might also be able to predict treatment response.
    Clinical neuroimaging 12/2014; 6. DOI:10.1016/j.nicl.2014.09.007 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    • "In order to assess the presence of fibromyalgia comorbidity, patients underwent the most recent diagnostic criteria [32], together with fibromyalgia impact profile (FIQ) [33] and tender point count [34]. The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) is a fibromyalgia-specific patient-reported outcome Instrument designed to assess health status, progress and outcomes in patients with fibromyalgia. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Association between sleep disorders and headache is largely known. The aim of the present study was to evaluate sleep quality and quantity in a large cohort of primary headache patients, in order to correlate these scores with symptoms of central sensitization as allodynia, pericranial tenderness and comorbidity with diffuse muscle-skeletal pain. Methods One thousand six hundreds and seventy primary headache out patients were submitted to the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) within a clinical assessment, consisting of evaluation of frequency of headache, pericranial tenderness, allodynia and coexistence of fibromyalgia syndrome (FM). Results Ten groups of primary headache patients were individuated, including patients with episodic and chronic migraine and tension type headache, mixed forms, cluster headache and other trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. Duration but not sleep disturbances score was correlated with symptoms of central sensitization as allodynia and pericranial tenderness in primary headache patients. The association among allodynia, pericranial tenderness and short sleep characterized chronic migraine more than any other primary headache form. Patients presenting with FM comorbidity suffered from sleep disturbances in addition to reduction of sleep duration. Conclusion Self reported duration of sleep seems a useful index to be correlated with allodynia, pericranial tenderness and chronic headache as a therapeutic target to be assessed in forthcoming studies aiming to prevent central sensitization symptoms development.
    The Journal of Headache and Pain 09/2014; 15(1):64. DOI:10.1186/1129-2377-15-64 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    • "We included 63 adult patients aged 18-years-old or older from among the pain and physiatrist clinical outpatients of the HCPA and via newspaper publicity. Patients with FM were enrolled according to American College of Rheumatology criteria [30]. To be eligible, patients had to be refractory to their current treatment. "
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    ABSTRACT: Central disinhibition is a mechanism involved in the physiopathology of fibromyalgia. Melatonin can improve sleep quality, pain and pain threshold. We hypothesized that treatment with melatonin alone or in combination with amitriptyline would be superior to amitriptyline alone in modifying the endogenous pain-modulating system (PMS) as quantified by conditional pain modulation (CPM), and this change in CPM could be associated with serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We also tested whether melatonin improves the clinical symptoms of pain, pain threshold and sleep quality. Sixty-three females, aged 18 to 65, were randomized to receive bedtime amitriptyline (25 mg) (n = 21), melatonin (10 mg) (n = 21) or melatonin (10 mg) + amitriptyline (25 mg) (n = 21) for a period of six weeks. The descending PMS was assessed with the CPM-TASK. It was assessed the pain score on the Visual Analog Scale (VAS 0-100 mm), the score on Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), heat pain threshold (HPT), sleep quality and BDNF serum. Delta values (post- minus pre-treatment) were used to compare the treatment effect. The outcomes variables were collected before, one and six weeks after initiating treatment. Melatonin alone or in combination with amitriptyline reduced significantly pain on the VAS compared with amitriptyline alone (P < 0.01). The delta values on the VAS scores were-12.85 (19.93),-17.37 (18.69) and-20.93 (12.23) in the amitriptyline, melatonin and melatonin+amitriptyline groups, respectively. Melatonin alone and in combination increased the inhibitory PMS as assessed by the Numerical Pain Scale [NPS(0-10)] reduction during the CPM-TASK:-2.4 (2.04) melatonin + amitriptyline,-2.65 (1.68) melatonin, and-1.04 (2.06) amitriptyline, (P < 0.05). Melatonin + amitriptyline treated displayed better results than melatonin and amitriptyline alone in terms of FIQ and PPT improvement (P < 0.05, fort both). Melatonin increased the inhibitory endogenous pain-modulating system as assessed by the reduction on NPS(0-10) during the CPM-TASK. Melatonin alone or associated with amitriptyline was better than amitriptyline alone in improving pain on the VAS, whereas its association with amitriptyline produced only marginal additional clinical effects on FIQ and PPT. Trial registration Current controlled trail is registered at clinical upon under number NCT02041455. Registered January 16, 2014.
    BMC pharmacology & toxicology 07/2014; 15(1):40. DOI:10.1186/2050-6511-15-40
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