Adaptive support ventilation prevents ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction in piglet: an in vivo and in vitro study.
ABSTRACT Contrary to adaptive support ventilation (ASV), prolonged totally controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) results in the absence of diaphragm activity and causes ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction. Because maintaining respiratory muscles at rest is likely a major cause of ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction, ASV may prevent its occurrence in comparison with CMV. The aim of our study was to compare the effects of ASV with those of CMV on both in vivo and in vitro diaphragmatic properties.
Two groups of six anesthetized piglets were ventilated during a 72-h period. Piglets in the CMV group (n = 6) were ventilated without spontaneous ventilation, and piglets in the ASV group (n = 6) were ventilated with spontaneous breaths. Transdiaphragmatic pressure was measured after bilateral, supramaximal transjugular stimulation of the two phrenic nerves. A pressure-frequency curve was drawn after stimulation from 20 to 120 Hz of the phrenic nerves. Diaphragm fiber proportions and mean sectional area were evaluated.
After 72 h of ventilation, transdiaphragmatic pressure decreased by 30% of its baseline value in the CMV group, whereas it did not decrease in the ASV group. Although CMV was associated with an atrophy of the diaphragm (evaluated by mean cross-sectional area of both the slow and fast myosin chains), atrophy was not detected in the ASV group.
Maintaining diaphragmatic contractile activity by using the ASV mode may protect the diaphragm against the deleterious effect of prolonged CMV, as demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo, in healthy piglets.
- American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 07/2011; 184(1):32-6. · 11.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It has become clear from experimental data that prolonged mechanical ventilation can induce diaphragm dysfunction, also known as ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction. In this article we will discuss most recent understanding on ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction and data on diaphragm dysfunction in patients. Over the last year several studies confirmed the existence of diaphragm dysfunction in patients. Known atrophy pathways are activated in patients undergoing prolonged conventional ventilation resulting in muscle proteolysis and a decrease in myofiber content. The loss of diaphragm force is time-dependent, but current data do not distinguish between the role played by other factors involved in diaphragm dysfunction. Diaphragm dysfunction occurs in patients, especially when ventilated with controlled modes of ventilation that minimize diaphragm activity. Time on the ventilator seems to be one of the biggest risk factors resulting in difficulties in weaning patients and prolonging time on the ventilator. Future trials should investigate whether improved patient-ventilator synchrony can reduce ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction and decrease weaning failure.Current opinion in anaesthesiology 02/2011; 24(2):214-8.
- Critical care medicine 04/2012; 40(4):1375-6. · 6.37 Impact Factor