Missed opportunity for standardized diagnosis and treatment among adult Tuberculosis patients in hospitals involved in Public-Private Mix for Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course strategy in Indonesia: a cross-sectional study
ABSTRACT The engagement of hospitals in Public-Private Mix (PPM) for Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course (DOTS) strategy has increased rapidly internationally - including in Indonesia. In view of the rapid global scaling-up of hospital engagement, we aimed to estimate the proportion of outpatient adult Tuberculosis patients who received standardized diagnosis and treatment at outpatients units of hospitals involved in the PPM-DOTS strategy.
A cross-sectional study using morbidity reports for outpatients, laboratory registers and Tuberculosis patient registers from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2005. By quota sampling, 62 hospitals were selected. Post-stratification analysis was conducted to estimate the proportion of Tuberculosis cases receiving standardized management according to the DOTS strategy.
Nineteen to 53% of Tuberculosis cases and 4-18% of sputum smear positive Tuberculosis cases in hospitals that participated in the PPM-DOTS strategy were not treated with standardized diagnosis and treatment as in DOTS.
This study found that a substantial proportion of TB patients cared for at PPM-DOTS hospitals are not managed under the DOTS strategy. This represents a missed opportunity for standardized diagnoses and treatment. A combination of strong individual commitment of health professionals, organizational supports, leadership, and relevant policy in hospital and National Tuberculosis Programme may be required to strengthen DOTS implementation in hospitals.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Anna-Karin Hurtig, May 30, 2015
SourceAvailable from: Xiaolin Wei[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background Public hospitals in China play an important role in tuberculosis (TB) control. Three models of hospital and TB control exist in China. The dispensary model is the most common one in which a TB dispensary provides both clinical and public health care. The specialist model is similar to the former except that a specialist TB hospital is located in the same area. The specialist hospital should treat only complicated TB cases but it also treats simple cases in practice. The integrated model is a new development to integrate TB service in public hospitals. Patients were diagnosed, treated and followed up in this public hospital in this model while the TB dispensary provides public health service as case reporting and mass education. This study aims to compare patient care seeking pathways under the three models, and to provide policy recommendation for the TB control system reform in China. Methods Six sites, two in each model, were selected across four provinces, with 293 newly treated uncomplicated TB patients being randomly selected. Results The majority (68%) of TB patients were diagnosed in hospitals. Patients in the integrated model presented the simplest care seeking pathways, with the least number of providers visited (2.2), shortest treatment delays (2 days) and the least medical expenditure (2729RMB/401USD). On the contrary, patients in the specialist model had the highest number of provider visits (4), longest treatment delays (23 days) and the highest medical expenditure (11626RMB/1710USD). Logistic regression suggested that patients who were hospitalised tended to have longer treatment delays and higher medical expenditure. Conclusion Specialist hospital treating uncomplicated cases not using the standard regimens posed a threat to TB control. The integrated model has shortened patient treatment pathways, and reduced patient costs; therefore, it could be considered as the direction for future reform of China’s TB control system.BMC Infectious Diseases 02/2013; 13(1):93. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-13-93 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Available evidence in Ghana shows the implementation of tuberculosis (TB) control activities efforts since the beginning of the 1900s. In spite of that, TB continues to be one of the common diseases in the country. In 1994, local and international policy windows opened for renewed strategies for the control of TB. This paper explores some of the approaches, which have been in place since 1994 and their implications for treatment outcomes. The study combines quantitative and qualitative data. The quantitative data consist of treatment outcome from 1997--2010 and the qualitative data are derived from in-depth interviews with some staff of the TB control programme. Poisson regression and inductive coding were applied to the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. Reported cure rates increased from 43.6% to 87.7% between 1997 and 2010. The data from the in-depth interviews (IDIs) suggested that improvements in diagnosis, community TB care, stigma reduction among community and health workers towards TB patients, the public-private partnership, and the enablers' package contributed to the improved better treatment outcomes, particularly from 2008. Lessons learnt include the achievement of objectives with varying strategies and stakeholder interventions. Further studies would be needed to quantify the contributions of the various interventions to help determine those that are cost effective as well as efficient and effective for TB control.Archives of Public Health 08/2013; 71(1):22. DOI:10.1186/2049-3258-71-22
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ABSTRACT: To report care pathways of tuberculosis (TB) patients under the integrated model, where TB clinical service is provided by a general hospital instead of the TB dispensary, with the aim of providing policy recommendations for TB care reforms in China. Six counties implementing the integrated model were randomly selected, and 50 TB patients in each county participated in a questionnaire survey. Of the 301 participants, 82 visited only the TB designated hospital. A patient visited a median of two health providers in total. The median external provider delay and internal provider delay were 1 and 0 day, respectively. The median out-of-pocket medical costs were US$379 in total; US$293 in the TB units and US$0 in other health units in the TB designated hospital. Logistic regression analyses suggested that patients who visited the primary care facilities first tended to have longer external delays (OR = 5.71) than patients who visited the other hospitals (OR = 10.16). The integrated model is promising as it reported relatively fewer patient pathways and shorter delays than the dispensary model. However, the integrated model did not reduce patient out-of-pocket costs.Tropical Medicine & International Health 10/2013; 18(11). DOI:10.1111/tmi.12197 · 2.30 Impact Factor