Missed opportunity for standardized diagnosis and treatment among adult Tuberculosis patients in hospitals involved in Public-Private Mix for Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course strategy in Indonesia: a cross-sectional study

Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Indonesia.
BMC Health Services Research (Impact Factor: 1.66). 05/2010; 10(1):113. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-10-113
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The engagement of hospitals in Public-Private Mix (PPM) for Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course (DOTS) strategy has increased rapidly internationally - including in Indonesia. In view of the rapid global scaling-up of hospital engagement, we aimed to estimate the proportion of outpatient adult Tuberculosis patients who received standardized diagnosis and treatment at outpatients units of hospitals involved in the PPM-DOTS strategy.
A cross-sectional study using morbidity reports for outpatients, laboratory registers and Tuberculosis patient registers from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2005. By quota sampling, 62 hospitals were selected. Post-stratification analysis was conducted to estimate the proportion of Tuberculosis cases receiving standardized management according to the DOTS strategy.
Nineteen to 53% of Tuberculosis cases and 4-18% of sputum smear positive Tuberculosis cases in hospitals that participated in the PPM-DOTS strategy were not treated with standardized diagnosis and treatment as in DOTS.
This study found that a substantial proportion of TB patients cared for at PPM-DOTS hospitals are not managed under the DOTS strategy. This represents a missed opportunity for standardized diagnoses and treatment. A combination of strong individual commitment of health professionals, organizational supports, leadership, and relevant policy in hospital and National Tuberculosis Programme may be required to strengthen DOTS implementation in hospitals.

Download full-text


Available from: Anna-Karin Hurtig, Jul 08, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To understand determinants of care-seeking patterns and diagnostic delay amongst tuberculosis (TB) patients diagnosed at direct observed treatment short course (DOTS) facilities in Jogjakarta, Indonesia. Cross-sectional survey amongst newly diagnosed TB patients in 89 DOTS facilities whose history of care-seeking was reconstructed through retrospective interviews gathering data on socio-demographic determinants, onset of TB symptoms, type of health facilities visited, duration of each care-seeking action were recorded. Two hundred and fifty-three TB patients were included in the study whose median duration of patients' delay was 1 week and whose total duration of diagnostic delay was 5.4 weeks. The median number of visits was 4. Many of the patients' socio-demographic determinants were not associated with the care-seeking patterns, and no socio-demographic determinants were associated with the duration of diagnostic delay. More than 60% of TB patients started their care-seeking processes outside DOTS facilities, but the number of visits in DOTS facilities was greater during the overall care-seeking process. Surprisingly, patient's immediate visits to a DOTS facility did not correspond to shorter diagnostic delay. Diagnostic delay in Jogjakarta province was not associated with patients' socio demographic factors, but rather with the health system providing DOTS services. This suggests that strengthening the health system and improving diagnostic quality within DOTS services is now a more rational strategy than expanding the TB programme to engage more providers.
    Tropical Medicine & International Health 12/2010; 16(4):412-23. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2010.02713.x · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The STOP TB Partnership aims to improve global tuberculosis (TB) control through expanding access to the directly observed treatment short course (DOTS) strategy. One approach to this is 'Engaging all Care Providers', which evolved from 'Public-Private Mix (PPM) DOTS'. The overall aim of this study was to systematically assess whether and to what degree the STOP TB Partnership's four global objectives of engaging all care providers are met through existing PPM interventions. These four objectives are; 1) Increase TB case detection; 2) Improve TB treatment outcomes; 3) Enhance access and equity; 4) Reduce financial burden on patients. The specific objectives of this assessment were to 1) Understand what PPM means to the STOP TB Partnership's PPM Subgroup and to National Tuberculosis Programme managers; 2) Scope the nature of existing country-level PPM interventions and 3) Review PPM practice against the global PPM objectives. We undertook a systematic, multi-facetted assessment. The methods included interviews with National Tuberculosis Programme managers from high burden countries, clarification of key issues with the STOP TB Partnership PPM secretariat and a review of publicly accessible reports and published articles on PPM projects. Both the literature review and interviews with the National Tuberculosis Programme managers yielded data on project characteristics; PPM models at country level; National Tuberculosis Programme partners; and mechanisms for engagement. Matrices were developed from the literature review and the interviews to show the relationship between services and service providers for different PPM projects. Data from the literature were assessed against each of the four global PPM objectives. Twelve National Tuberculosis Programme managers from high burden countries were interviewed about the scope of PPM partnerships. Understanding of PPM and types of engaged providers varied considerably; 'private-for-profit qualified clinical providers' were the dominant category. The literature review yielded information on 22 projects in which 'private-for-profit qualified clinical providers' were again the dominant category. The contributions made by 'private-for-profit qualified clinical providers' and 'Non Governmental Organisation qualified clinical providers', were assessed against the four global PPM objectives. Reporting on tuberculosis case detection and treatment outcomes was generally good and demonstrated important PPM contributions in these areas. Reporting on equity, access and reduced patient costs was often lacking or inconclusive. PPM has improved case detection and treatment outcomes among patients seeking care with private providers. Evidence on reducing patient costs is inconclusive, and there is scope for increasing equity in access to care by systematically engaging those providers who are the primary agents for poor people seeking health care. Guidelines outlining which types of providers best contribute to achieving the four global objectives, along with the resources required by National Tuberculosis Programs for such engagement is needed.
    International Journal for Equity in Health 11/2011; 10(1):49. DOI:10.1186/1475-9276-10-49 · 1.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the majority of China, the Centre for Disease Control (CDC) at the county level provides both clinical and public health care for TB cases, with hospitals and other health facilities referring suspected TB cases to the CDC. In recent years, an integrated model has emerged, where the CDC remains the basic management unit for TB control, while a general hospital is designated to provide clinical care for TB patients. This study aims to explore the factors that influence the integration of TB services in general hospitals and generate knowledge to aid the scale-up of integration of TB services in China. This study adopted a qualitative approach using interviews from sites in East and West China. Analysis was conducted using a thematic framework approach. The more prosperous site in East China was more coordinated and thus had a better method of resource allocation and more patient-orientated service, compared with the poorer site in the West. The development of public health organizations appeared to influence how effectively integration occurred. An understanding from staff that hospitals had better capacity to treat TB patients than CDCs was a strong rationale for integration. However, the economic and political interests might act as a barrier to effective integration. Both sites shared the same challenges of attracting and retaining a skilled workforce for the TB services. The role of the health bureau was more directive in the Western site, while a more participatory and collaborative approach was adopted in the Eastern site. The process of integration identifies similarities and differences between sites in more affluent East China and poorer West China. Integration of TB services in the hospitals needs to address the challenges of stakeholder motivations and resource allocation. Effective inter-organizational collaboration could help to improve the efficiency and quality of TB service.
    BMC Health Services Research 01/2012; 12:21. DOI:10.1186/1472-6963-12-21 · 1.66 Impact Factor