Small cell carcinoma of the lung and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma interobserver variability.
ABSTRACT To test the hypothesis that the published morphological criteria permit reliable segregation of small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCLC) and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) cases by determining the interobserver variation.
One hundred and seventy cases of SCLC, LCNEC and cases diagnosed as neuroendocrine lung carcinoma before LCNEC had been established as a diagnostic category were retrieved from the archives of the assessor's institutes. A representative haematoxylin and eosin section from each case was selected for review. Batches of cases were circulated among nine pathologists with a special interest in pulmonary pathology. Participants were asked to classify the cases histologically according to the 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. The diagnoses were collected and kappa values calculated. Unanimity of diagnosis was achieved for only 20 cases; a majority diagnosis was reached for 115 cases. In 35 cases no consensus diagnosis could be reached. There was striking variability amongst assessors in diagnosing SCLC and LCNEC. The overall level of agreement for all cases included in this study was fair (kappa=0.40).
Using non-preselected cases, the morphological WHO criteria for diagnosing SCLC and LCNEC leave room for subjective pathological interpretation, which results in imprecise categorization of SCLC and LCNEC cases.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Lung cancer still remains the leading cause of cancer for men after prostate cancer and breast cancer for women. Angiogenesis is considered a major microenvironment modifier. Material and Methods: Demographic data and study design; The study is based on a collective of twenty representative specimens of each tumour entity (Typical Carcinoid, Atypical Carcinoid, Large-Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma , Small Cell Lung Cancer) for mRNA expression analysis. The following methods were performed: RNA Extraction and RNA Integrity Assessment, NanoString CodeSet Design and Expression Quantification, NanoString Data Processing and Statistical Analysis. Results: KDR rendered significant association to aggressiveness of the tumour and decreases with increasing malignancy (p=0.049). A decreased expression of HIF1A and KDR mRNA as associated with a higher risk of tumour invasion in vessels (HIF1A: p=0.034; KDR: p=0.029). FIGF and HIF1A expression levels are significantly associated with progression-free survival (FIGF: p= 0.021; HIF1A: p= 0.049). CRHR2 and FLT4 are stronger expressed in female than in male patients (CRHR2: p=0.024, FLT4: p=0.004). FIGF expression is still significant between LCNEC and SCLC (p=0.023). FLT4 and KDR show highly significant association to one of the analysed groups (FLT4: p=0.001; KDR: p=0.006). Additionally, HIF1A expression differs significantly between these focus cohorts (p=0.018). Conclusion: We should consider for clinical practice application which factors affect most the tumour growth and distal metastasis, thereafter investigate easy to administer drugs with low side effects. Probably a cluster system of therapy should be established where a drug targets simultaneously different pathways of the same origin.Journal of Cancer. 01/2014; 5(6):465-71.
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ABSTRACT: Pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a rare and aggressive malignant tumor, which was proposed as a novel type of neuroendocrine tumor in 1991. Although it is categorized as a non-small cell lung carcinoma, the precise pathological condition is unknown due to its rare occurrence. The present study outlines the case of a patient presenting with an LCNEC that exhibited pagetoid spread from the region of the primary tumor to the bronchial epithelium (distance, >30 mm). The pagetoid spread was unconfirmed preoperatively, however, was identified by intraoperative rapid diagnosis. This caused us to suffer the perioperative decision of additional resection and resulted in an incomplete resection, as suture of the bronchus was not possible. Pagetoid spread, which is often apparent in the breast, presents as a rare pattern of infiltration of cancer cells when a massive carcinoma is identified beneath the intraepithelial spread. Although preoperative diagnosis of pagetoid spread is difficult due to its rarity and undefined clinical features, it is important for surgeons and pathologists treating lung cancer patients to be aware of potential pagetoid spread in the thoracic region.Oncology letters 12/2014; 8(6):2621-2623. · 0.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung encompass a wide spectrum. A carcinoid tumor is either a central smooth endobronchial tumor or a round, well-circumscribed, peripheral parenchymal lesion. Distinguishing typical carcinoid tumors from atypical carcinoid tumors is unreliable from a limited biopsy but can be based on age, presentation, and node enlargement. Large cell neuroendocrine cancer presents similarly to most non-small cell lung cancers. Small cell lung cancer has a characteristic presentation, with a rapid progression of symptoms, and a bulky central and/or mediastinal tumor. A diagnosis is achieved by limited biopsy and is usually reliable.Thoracic Surgery Clinics 08/2014; 24(3):267–276. · 0.77 Impact Factor