A thrombus-targeted ultrasound contrast agent bound with tirofiban - a glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa antagonist that can specifically bind to activated platelets in the thrombus - was designed to enhance both the image contrast and thrombolysis effect. In this study, we used 76 canine thrombi for investigation. The targeting ability to thrombi was confirmed by microphotography and high-frequency ultrasound (40 MHz) imaging. The effect of the targeted microbubbles on thrombolysis enhancement was investigated using an in vitro flow system: targeted and nontargeted microbubbles flowed through the clot for 30 seconds with a washing step; the microbubbles remained on the clot that were then cavitated by ultrasound (frequency = 1 MHz, MI = 1.2). The extent of thrombolysis was evaluated by weight reduction and histology analysis. The targeted microbubbles reduced the weight of thrombi by a factor of 1.7 times that of the nontargeted microbubbles. (clot weight reduction: 23.1 +/- 5.3% versus 13.6 +/- 4.9%, p < 0.01 between targeted and nontargeted group), and the signal enhancement was 3.34 +/- 0.30 dB (mean +/- SD, p < 0.01 compared to control). We conclude that targeted microbubbles are applicable not only for molecular imaging of thrombi but also for improving the effectiveness of ultrasound-assisted thrombolysis.
"tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)    . Thrombolytic therapies may improve perfusion in small vessels, restoring cerebral blood flow to the penumbra even when recanalization of the blocked artery does not occur. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Duration and extent of penumbra determine the window and brain volume in which interventions may save injured tissue after stroke. Understanding the penumbra in animals is necessary in order to design models that translate to effective clinical therapies. New Zealand white rabbits were embolized with aged autologous clot (n = 23) or insoluble microspheres (n = 21). To examine effects of treatment on penumbra, sphere-stroked animals were treated with 3 μm microbubbles plus ultrasound (n = 19). Rabbits were euthanized at 4 or 24 hr. Infarct volume was measured following triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining of brain sections. Penumbra was visualized using immunostaining of pimonidazole injected fifteen minutes prior to euthanasia. Potentially reversible penumbra was present in 14.3% stroked rabbits at 4 hours and 15.7% at 24 hours after embolic stroke and represented up to 35% of total lost tissue. Intervention at up to 24 hours may benefit a significant patient population.
Stroke Research and Treatment 07/2011; 2011:764830. DOI:10.4061/2011/764830
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To review the mechanisms of platelet activation and options for diagnosing and treating platelet hyperactivity in relation to thrombosis in dogs and cats.
Prospective, retrospective, and review articles, as well as textbook chapters in both human and veterinary medicine. Articles were primarily, but not exclusively, retrieved via Medline.
In people, platelets are known to play a key role in the development of arterial thrombosis in numerous disease states and antiplatelet drugs are the cornerstone in the treatment of acute events and for prevention in patients at risk. For many years, aspirin was used as the sole antiplatelet drug in people, but the introduction of adenosine diphosphate receptor antagonists and integrin α(IIb) β(3) inhibitors has significantly improved outcome in selective groups of patients.
The understanding of platelet activation in disease states has increased dramatically over the past decade. Simultaneously, a host of new methods for evaluating platelet function have been developed, which enable primarily researchers, but also clinicians to monitor the activity of platelets. Many of these methods have been validated for research purposes, but few have found their way to the clinics. Not a single correctly randomized clinical trial has been carried out with any antiplatelet drug for any indication in dogs or cats, and consequently, treatment is empiric and largely based on expert opinion or data from experimental studies.
The pathogenesis of thromboembolic disease is complex and multifactorial and the role of hyperactive platelets in this etiology remains to be clarified in most of the diseases associated with thrombosis in dogs and cats. Until efficacy data from well-designed studies are available, antithrombotic therapy should consist of close monitoring, good supportive care, and judicious empirical use of antiplatelet agents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular diseases are the primary cause of mortality in the industrialized world, and arterial obstruction, triggered by rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques, lead to myocardial infarction and cerebral stroke. Vulnerable plaques do not necessarily occur with flow-limiting stenosis, thus conventional luminographic assessment of the pathology fails to identify unstable lesions. In this review we discuss the currently available imaging modalities used to investigate morphological features and biological characteristics of the atherosclerotic plaque. The different imaging modalities such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, nuclear imaging and their intravascular applications are illustrated, highlighting their specific diagnostic potential. Clinically available and upcoming methodologies are also reviewed along with the related challenges in their clinical translation, concerning the specific invasiveness, accuracy and cost-effectiveness of these methods.
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