Article

Pentalysine beta-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc: an effective tumor-targeting photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy.

Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yuquan Road, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049, China.
ChemMedChem (Impact Factor: 2.84). 06/2010; 5(6):890-8. DOI: 10.1002/cmdc.201000042
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Unsymmetrical phthalocyanine derivatives have been widely studied as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT), targeting various tumor types. However, the preparation of unsymmetrical phthalocyanines is always a challenge due to the presence of many possible structural isomers. Herein we report a new unsymmetrical zinc phthalocyanine, pentalysine beta-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-(Lys)(5)), that was prepared in large quantity and high purity. This is a water-soluble cationic photosensitizer and maintains a high quantum yield of singlet oxygen generation similar to that of unsubstituted zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc). Compared with anionic ZnPc counterparts, ZnPc-(Lys)(5) shows a higher level cellular uptake and 20-fold higher phototoxicity toward tumor cells. Pharmacokinetics and PDT studies of ZnPc-(Lys)(5) in S180 tumor-bearing mice showed a high ratio of tumor versus skin retention and significant tumor inhibition. This new molecular framework will allow synthetic diversity in the number of lysine residues incorporated and will facilitate future QSAR studies.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
105 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human serum albumin (HSA), a naturally abundant protein in blood plasma and tissue fluids, has an extraordinary ligand-binding capacity and is advocated as a drug carrier to facilitate drug delivery. To render it tumor targeting specificity, we generated a recombinant HSA fused with the amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of urokinase, allowing the fusion protein to bind to urokinase receptor (uPAR), which is shown to have a high expression level in many tumors, but not in normal tissues. To test the efficacy of this bifunctional protein (ATF-HSA), a hydrophobic photosensitizer (mono-substituted β-carboxy phthalocyanine zinc, CPZ) was chosen as a cytotoxic agent. A dilution-incubation-purification (DIP) strategy was developed to load the ATF-HSA with this CPZ, forming a 1:1 molecular complex (ATF-HSA:CPZ). We demonstrated that CPZ was indeed embedded inside ATF-HSA at the fatty acid binding site 1 (FA1) of HSA, giving a hydrodynamic radius of 7.5 nm, close to HSA's (6.5 nm). ATF-HSA:CPZ showed high stability and remarkable optical and photophysical properties in aqueous solution. In addition, the molecular complex ATF-HSA:CPZ can bind to recombinant uPAR in vitro and uPAR on tumor cell surfaces, and was efficient in photodynamic killing of tumor cells. The tumor-killing potency of this molecular complex was further demonstrated in a tumor-bearing mouse model at a dose of 0.080 μmol / kg, or 0.050 mg CPZ / kg of mouse body weight. Using fluorescent molecular tomography (FMT), ATF-HSA:CPZ was shown to accumulate specifically in tumors, and importantly, such tumor retention was higher than that of HSA:CPZ. Together, these results indicate that ATF-HSA:CPZ is not only an efficient tumor-specific cytotoxic agent, but also an useful tumor-specific imaging probe. This bifunctional protein ATF-HSA can also be used as a drug carrier for other types of cytotoxic or imaging agents to render them specificity for uPAR-expressing tumors.
    Theranostics 01/2014; 4(6):642-59. · 7.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has attracted strong interest in the treatment of cancer due to the increased incidence of multidrug resistance and systemic toxicity in conventional chemotherapy. Phthalocyanine (Pc) is one of main classes of photosensitizers for PDT with optimal photophysical and photochemical properties. A higher specificity can ideally be achieved when Pcs are targeted towards tumor specific receptors, which may also facilitate specific drug delivery. Herein, we develop a simple and unique strategy to prepare a hydrophilic tumor-targeting photosensitizer ATF-ZnPc by covalently coupling zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) to the amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), a fragment responsible for uPA receptor (uPAR, a biomarker over-expressed in cancer cells), through the carboxyl groups of ATF. We demonstrate the high efficacy of such tumor-targeting PDT agent for the inhibition of tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo. Our in vivo optical imaging results using H22 tumor-bearing mice show clearly the selective accumulation of ATF-ZnPc in tumor region, thereby revealing the great potential of ATF-ZnPc for clinical applications such as cancer detection and guidance of tumor resection in addition to photodynamic treatment.
    Acta biomaterialia. 06/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Di-cationic Zn(II)-phthalocyanines (ZnPcs) are promising photosensitizers for the photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancers and for photoinactivation of viruses and bacteria. Pegylation of photosensitizers in general enhances their water-solubility and tumor cell accumulation. A series of pegylated di-cationic ZnPcs were synthesized from conjugation of a low molecular weight PEG group to a pre-formed Pc macrocycle, or by mixed condensation involving a pegylated phthalonitrile. All pegylated ZnPcs were highly soluble in polar organic solvents but were insoluble in water; they have intense Q absorptions centered at 680 nm and fluorescence quantum yields of ca. 0.2 in DMF. The non-pegylated di-cationic ZnPc 6a formed large aggregates, which were visualized by atomic force microscopy. The cytotoxicity, cellular uptake and subcellular distribution of all cationic ZnPcs were investigated in human carcinoma HEp2 cells. The most phototoxic compounds were found to be the α-substituted Pcs. Among these, Pcs 4a and 16a were the most effective (IC(50) ca. 10 μM at 1.5 J/cm(2)), in part due to the presence of a PEG group and the two positive charges in close proximity (separated by an ethylene group) in these macrocycles. The β-substituted ZcPcs 6b and 4b accumulated the most within HEp2 cells but had low photocytoxicity (IC(50) > 100 μM at 1.5 J/cm(2)), possibly as a result of their lower electron density of the ring and more extended conformations compared with the α-substituted Pcs. The results show that the charge distribution about the Pc macrocycle and the intracellular localization of the cationic ZnPcs mainly determine their photodynamic activity.
    Theranostics 01/2012; 2(9):850-70. · 7.81 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
43 Downloads
Available from
May 20, 2014