Article

Revisiting the role of IL-2 in autoimmunity.

Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0511, USA.
European Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 4.52). 06/2010; 40(6):1538-40. DOI: 10.1002/eji.201040617
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT IL-2 was discovered as a T-cell growth factor that promoted T-cell-dependent immune responses; however, more recent studies suggest that the essential role of IL-2 is to maintain functional Treg and thus control immune responses. These results are leading to new ideas about the potential of IL-2 as a therapeutic strategy in autoimmune diseases. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, a study further examines the role of IL-2 in immune regulation and shows for the first time that IL-2 complexes can ameliorate autoantibody-mediated autoimmunity. This commentary examines the current findings in relation to what we already know about IL-2 complexes.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
83 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Low dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) expands regulatory T cells (Tregs) and natural killer (NK) cells after stem cell transplantation (SCT) and may reduce graft versus host disease (GVHD). We hypothesized that ultra-low dose (ULD) IL-2 could serve as an immune-modulating agent for stem cell donors to prevent GVHD following SCT. However, the safety, dose level, and immune signatures of ULD IL-2 in immune-competent healthy subjects remain unknown. Here we have characterized the phenotype and function of Tregs and NK cells as well as the gene expression and cytokine profiles of twenty-one healthy volunteers receiving 50,000 to 200,000 units/m(2)/day IL-2 for 5 days. ULD IL-2 was well tolerated and induced a significant increase in the frequency of Tregs with increased suppressive function. There was a marked expansion of CD56(bright)NK cells with enhanced interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production. Serum cytokine profiling demonstrated increase of IFN-γ induced protein 10 (IP-10). Gene expression analysis revealed significant changes in a highly-restricted set of genes, including FOXP3, IL-2RA, and CISH. This is the first study to evaluate global immune-modulating function of ULD IL-2 in healthy subjects and to support the future studies administrating ULD IL-2 to stem cell donors.Molecular Therapy (2014); doi:10.1038/mt.2014.50.
    Molecular Therapy 04/2014; · 6.43 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tellurium is a rare element, which has been regarded as a non-essential trace element despite its relative abundance in the human body. The chemistry of tellurium supports a plethora of activities, but its biochemistry is not clearly established to date. The small telluriumIV compound, ammonium trichloro (dioxoethylene-o,o′)tellurate (AS101) developed and initially investigated by us, is currently being evaluated in Phase II clinical trials in psoriasis patients. AS101 is the first tellurium compound to be tested for clinical efficacy. This compound is a potent immunomodulator both in vitro and in vivo with a variety of potential therapeutic applications. The present review will focus on the immunomodulatory properties of AS101, and specifically, its effects in mitigating autoimmune diseases. AS101 has several activities that act on the immune system, including: 1) its ability to reduce IL-17 levels and to inhibit the function of Th17 cells; 2) its specific unique redox-modulating activities enabling the inhibition of specific leukocyte integrins such as α4β1 and α4β7, that are pivotal for diapedesis of macrophages and CD4+ T inflammatory/auto-reactive cells into the autoimmune tissues; and 3) its ability to enhance the activity of regulatory T cells (Treg). These activities coupled with its excellent safety profile suggest that AS101 may be a promising candidate for the management of autoimmune diseases.
    Autoimmunity Reviews 12/2014; · 7.10 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We prepared recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2) and studied its pretreated influence on liver regeneration and the blood profile in partially (67%) hepatectomized (PH) male Sprague–Dawley rats. Rats were injected in the tail vein with rhIL-2 three times per day for 3 consecutive days and 67% underwent a partial hepatectomy (PH). Five days after the PH, liver tissue and blood samples were analyzed for liver regeneration and hematological changes. The weight of the liver in the rhIL-2 pretreated groups increased in a dose-dependent manner; with the highest treatment (24 × 104 IU/kg), the maximum liver weight of 88.6% was exhibited. The control group showed a gradual increase to 76.3% of the original liver weight. A histological analysis of the liver showed an increase in proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells in rhIL-2 pretreated rat livers. The rate of hepatocyte proliferation also increased significantly in primary cultured rat liver cells following rhIL-2 treatment. These results suggest that pretreatment with rhIL-2 may play adjuvant roles in liver regeneration after PH.

Preview

Download
0 Downloads