Estimation of inhibitory quotient using a comparative equilibrium dialysis assay for prediction of viral response to hepatitis C virus inhibitors.
ABSTRACT The relationship of inhibitory quotient (IQ) with the virologic response to specific inhibitors of human hepatitis C virus (HCV) and the best method to correct for serum protein binding in calculating IQ have not been addressed. A common method is to determine a fold shift by comparing the EC(50) values determined in cell culture in the absence and presence of human serum (fold shift in EC(50) ), but this method has a number of disadvantages. In the present study, the fold shifts in drug concentrations between 100% human plasma (HP) and cell culture medium (CCM) were directly measured using a modified comparative equilibrium dialysis (CED) assay for three HCV protease inhibitors (PIs) and for a novel HCV inhibitor GS-9132. The fold shift values in drug concentration between the HP and CCM (CED ratio) were ∼1 for SCH-503034, VX-950 and GS-9132 and 13 for BILN-2061. These values were ∼3-10-fold lower than the fold shift values calculated from the EC(50) assay for all inhibitors except BILN-2061. Using the CED values, a consistent pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationship was observed for the four HCV inhibitors analysed. Specifically, an approximate 1 log(10) reduction in HCV RNA was achieved with an IQ close to 1, while 2-3 and greater log(10) reductions in HCV RNA were achieved with IQ values of 3-5 and greater, respectively. Thus, use of CED to define IQ provides a predictive and quantitative approach for the assessment of the in vivo potency of HCV PIs and GS-9132. This method provides a framework for the evaluation of other classes of drugs that are bound by serum proteins but require the presence of serum for in vitro evaluation.
SourceAvailable from: Guofeng Cheng[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A new class of highly potent NS5A inhibitors with an unsymmetric benzimidazole-difluorofluorene-imidazole core and distal [2.2.1]azabicyclic ring system was discovered. Optimization of antiviral potency and pharmacokinetics led to the identification of 39 (ledipasvir, GS-5885). Compound 39 (GT1a replicon EC50 = 31 pM) has an extended plasma half-life of 37-45 hours in healthy volunteers, and produces a rapid > 3 log10 viral load reduction in monotherapy at oral doses of 3 milligrams or greater with once-daily dosing in genotype 1a HCV infected patients. 39 has been shown to be safe and efficacious with SVR12 rates up to 100% when used in combination with direct-acting antivirals having complementary mechanisms.Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 12/2013; 57(5). DOI:10.1021/jm401499g · 5.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nonimmunosuppressive cyclophilin inhibitors have demonstrated efficacy for the treatment of hepatitis C infection (HCV). However, alisporivir, cyclosporin A, and most other cyclosporins are potent inhibitors of OATP1B1, MRP2, MDR1, and other important drug transporters. Reduction of the side chain hydrophobicity of the P4 residue preserves cyclophilin binding and antiviral potency while decreasing transporter inhibition. Representative inhibitor 33 (NIM258) is a less potent transporter inhibitor relative to previously described cyclosporins, retains anti-HCV activity in cell culture, and has an acceptable pharmacokinetic profile in rats and dogs. An X-ray structure of 33 bound to rat cyclophilin D is reported.Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 10/2014; 57(20). DOI:10.1021/jm500862r · 5.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The discovery and development of the first-in-class hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A replication complex inhibitor daclatasvir (6) provides a compelling example of the power of phenotypic screening to identify leads engaging novel targets in mechanistically unique ways. HCV NS5A replication complex inhibitors are pan-genotypic in spectrum, and this mechanistic class provides the most potent HCV inhibitors in vitro that have been described to date. Clinical trials with 6 demonstrated a potent effect on reducing plasma viral load and, in combination with mechanistically orthogonal HCV inhibitors, established the ability to cure even the most difficult infections without the need for immune stimulation. In this Drug Annotation, we describe the discovery of the original high-throughput screening lead 7 and the chemical conundrum and challenges resolved in optimizing to 6 as a clinical candidate and finally we summarize the results of select clinical studies.Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 04/2014; 57(12). DOI:10.1021/jm500335h · 5.48 Impact Factor