Role of STK in mouse liver macrophage and endothelial cell responsiveness during acute endotoxemia

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, 160 Frelinghuysen Rd., Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA.
Journal of leukocyte biology (Impact Factor: 4.99). 05/2010; 88(2):373-82. DOI: 10.1189/jlb.0210113
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Acute endotoxemia is associated with excessive production of proinflammatory mediators by hepatic macrophages and endothelial cells, which have been implicated in liver injury and sepsis. In these studies, we analyzed the role of MSP and its receptor STK in regulating the activity of these cells. Acute endotoxemia, induced by administration of LPS (3 mg/kg) to mice, resulted in increased expression of STK mRNA and protein in liver macrophages and endothelial cells, an effect that was dependent on TLR-4. This was correlated with decreased MSP and increased pro-MSP in serum. In Kupffer cells, but not endothelial cells, MSP suppressed LPS-induced NOS-2 expression, with no effect on COX-2. LPS treatment of mice caused a rapid (within 3 h) increase in the proinflammatory proteins NOS-2, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha, as well as TREM-1 and TREM-3 and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in liver macrophages and endothelial cells. Whereas LPS-induced expression of proinflammatory proteins was unchanged in STK-/- mice, IL-10 expression was reduced significantly. Enzymes mediating eicosanoid biosynthesis including COX-2 and mPGES-1 also increased in macrophages and endothelial cells after LPS administration. In STK-/- mice treated with LPS, mPGES-1 expression increased, although COX-2 expression was reduced. LPS-induced up-regulation of SOD was also reduced in STK-/- mice in liver macrophages and endothelial cells. These data suggest that MSP/STK signaling plays a role in up-regulating macrophage and endothelial cell anti-inflammatory activity during hepatic inflammatory responses. This may be important in protecting the liver from tissue injury.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Stem cell-derived tyrosine kinase (STK) is a transmembrane receptor reported to play a role in macrophage switching from a classically activated/proinflammatory phenotype to an alternatively activated/wound repair phenotype. In the present studies, STK⁻/⁻ mice were used to assess the role of STK in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity as evidence suggests that the pathogenic process involves both of these macrophage subpopulations. In wild type mice, centrilobular hepatic necrosis and increases in serum transaminase levels were observed within 6h of acetaminophen administration (300 mg/kg, i.p.). Loss of STK resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity of mice to the hepatotoxic effects of acetaminophen and increased mortality, effects independent of its metabolism. This was associated with reduced levels of hepatic glutathione, rapid upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, and prolonged induction of heme oxygenase-1, suggesting excessive oxidative stress in STK⁻/⁻ mice. F4/80, a marker of mature macrophages, was highly expressed on subpopulations of Kupffer cells in livers of wild type, but not STK⁻/⁻ mice. Whereas F4/80⁺ macrophages rapidly declined in the livers of wild type mice following acetaminophen intoxication, they increased in STK⁻/⁻ mice. In wild type mice hepatic expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-12, products of classically activated macrophages, increased after acetaminophen administration. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and its receptor, CCR2, as well as IL-10, mediators involved in recruiting and activating anti-inflammatory/wound repair macrophages, also increased in wild type mice after acetaminophen. Loss of STK blunted the effects of acetaminophen on expression of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-12, MCP-1 and CCR2, while expression of IL-10 increased. Hepatic expression of CX3CL1, and its receptor, CX3CR1 also increased in STK⁻/⁻ mice treated with acetaminophen. These data demonstrate that STK plays a role in regulating macrophage recruitment and activation in the liver following acetaminophen administration, and in hepatotoxicity.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 05/2012; 262(2):139-48. DOI:10.1016/j.taap.2012.04.027 · 3.63 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is unique among a broad range of hyperalgesic agents in that it induces hyperalgesia in rats that is markedly enhanced by repeated mechanical stimulation at the site of administration. Antagonists to the ET-1 receptors, ET(A) and ET(B), attenuated both initial as well as stimulation-induced enhancement of hyperalgesia (SIEH) by endothelin. However, administering antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to attenuate ET(A) receptor expression on nociceptors attenuated ET-1 hyperalgesia but had no effect on SIEH, suggesting that this is mediated via a non-neuronal cell. Because vascular endothelial cells are both stretch sensitive and express ET(A) and ET(B) receptors, we tested the hypothesis that SIEH is dependent on endothelial cells by impairing vascular endothelial function with octoxynol-9 administration; this procedure eliminated SIEH without attenuating ET-1 hyperalgesia. A role for protein kinase Cε (PKCε), a second messenger implicated in the induction and maintenance of chronic pain, was explored. Intrathecal antisense for PKCε did not inhibit either ET-1 hyperalgesia or SIEH, suggesting no role for neuronal PKCε; however, administration of a PKCε inhibitor at the site of testing selectively attenuated SIEH. Compatible with endothelial cells releasing ATP in response to mechanical stimulation, P2X(2/3) receptor antagonists eliminated SIEH. The endothelium also appears to contribute to hyperalgesia in two ergonomic pain models (eccentric exercise and hindlimb vibration) and in a model of endometriosis. We propose that SIEH is produced by an effect of ET-1 on vascular endothelial cells, sensitizing its release of ATP in response to mechanical stimulation; ATP in turn acts at the nociceptor P2X(2/3) receptor.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 02/2013; 33(7):2849-59. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3229-12.2013 · 6.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: MSP (Macrophage Stimulating Protein; also known as Hepatocyte Growth Factor-like protein (HGFL) and MST1) is a secreted protein and the ligand for transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase Recepteur d'Origine Nantais (RON; also known as MST1R). Since its discovery, MSP has been demonstrated to play a key role in regulating inflammation in the peripheral tissues of multiple disease models. Recent evidences also point toward a beneficial role of MSP in the regulation of hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism, thereby implicating MSP as a crucial regulator in maintaining metabolic homeostasis while simultaneously suppressing inflammatory processes. In this review, we discuss the recent advances that demonstrate the significance of MSP in metabolic syndrome and build a strong case supporting its therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews 10/2014; 26(1). DOI:10.1016/j.cytogfr.2014.10.007 · 6.54 Impact Factor

Similar Publications