Article

Sleep Restriction Is Associated With Increased Morning Plasma Leptin Concentrations, Especially in Women

Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
Biological Research for Nursing (Impact Factor: 1.34). 05/2010; 12(1):47-53. DOI: 10.1177/1099800410366301
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We evaluated the effects of sleep restriction on leptin levels in a large, diverse sample of healthy participants, while allowing free access to food.
Prospective experimental design. After 2 nights of baseline sleep, 136 participants (49% women, 56% African Americans) received 5 consecutive nights of 4 hours time in bed (TIB). Additionally, one subset of participants received 2 additional nights of either further sleep restriction (n = 27) or increased sleep opportunity (n = 37). Control participants (n = 9) received 10 hr TIB on all study nights. Plasma leptin was measured between 10:30 a.m. and 12:00 noon following baseline sleep, after the initial sleep-restriction period, and after 2 nights of further sleep restriction or recovery sleep.
Leptin levels increased significantly among sleep-restricted participants after 5 nights of 4 hr TIB (Z = -8.43, p < .001). Increases were significantly greater among women compared to men (Z = -4.77, p < .001) and among participants with higher body mass index (BMI) compared to those with lower (Z = -2.09, p = .036), though participants in all categories (sex, race/ethnicity, BMI, and age) demonstrated significant increases. There was also a significant effect of allowed TIB on leptin levels following the 2 additional nights of sleep restriction (p < .001). Participants in the control condition showed no significant changes in leptin levels.
These findings suggest that sleep restriction with ad libitum access to food significantly increases morning plasma leptin levels, particularly among women.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
121 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent increases in the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in modern societies have been paralleled by reductions in the time their denizens spend asleep. Epidemiological studies have shown that disturbed sleep-comprising short, low-quality, and mistimed sleep-increases the risk of metabolic diseases, especially obesity and T2DM. Supporting a causal role of disturbed sleep, experimental animal and human studies have found that sleep loss can impair metabolic control and body weight regulation. Possible mechanisms for the observed changes comprise sleep loss-induced changes in appetite-signaling hormones (e.g., higher levels of the hunger-promoting hormone ghrelin) or hedonic brain responses, altered responses of peripheral tissues to metabolic signals, and changes in energy intake and expenditure. Even though the overall consensus is that sleep loss leads to metabolic perturbations promoting the development of obesity and T2DM, experimental evidence supporting the validity of this view has been inconsistent. This Perspective aims at discussing molecular to behavioral factors through which short, low-quality, and mistimed sleep may threaten metabolic public health. In this context, possible factors that may determine the extent to which poor sleep patterns increase the risk of metabolic pathologies within and across generations will be discussed (e.g., timing and genetics). © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
    Diabetes 04/2015; 64(4):1073-1080. DOI:10.2337/db14-1475 · 8.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sleep is an essential lifestyle factor that contributes to overall health. The inverse relation between sleep duration and weight status has revealed the importance of sleep in nutritional health. This integrative review builds foundational knowledge with regard to sleep vis-à-vis nutrition by summarizing the importance and process of sleep, current sleep recommendations and trends, as well as lifestyle contributors to poor sleep. Additionally, it details the association between sleep and obesity and potential mechanisms for this association. Furthermore, guidance is offered regarding the incorporation of sleep considerations in nutrition counseling, communication, and research. Like many other lifestyle factors that contribute to nutritional health, sleep needs to be considered when examining weight management and health promotion.
    Advances in Nutrition 11/2014; 5(6):742-759. DOI:10.3945/an.114.006809 · 3.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract This review article is a compendium of six individual manuscripts, a Commentary, and an Executive Summary. This body of work is entitled "The Impact of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space" and was developed in response to a recommendation from the 2011 National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, "Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences for a New Era," which emphasized the need to fully understand sex and gender differences in space. To ensure the health and safety of male and female astronauts during long-duration space missions, it is imperative to examine and understand the influences that sex and gender have on physiological and psychological changes that occur during spaceflight. In this collection of manuscripts, six workgroups investigated and summarized the current body of published and unpublished human and animal research performed to date related to sex- and gender-based differences in the areas of cardiovascular, immunological, sensorimotor, musculoskeletal, reproductive, and behavioral adaptations to human spaceflight. Each workgroup consisted of scientists and clinicians from academia, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and other federal agencies and was co-chaired by one representative from NASA and one from the external scientific community. The workgroups met via telephone and e-mail over 6 months to review literature and data from space- and ground-based studies to identify sex and gender factors affecting crew health. In particular, the Life Sciences Data Archive and the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health were extensively mined. The groups identified certain sex-related differences that impact the risks and the optimal medical care required by space-faring women and men. It represents innovative research in sex and gender-based biology that impacts those individuals that are at the forefront of space exploration.
    Journal of Women's Health 11/2014; 23(11):941-7. DOI:10.1089/jwh.2014.4914 · 1.90 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
27 Downloads
Available from
May 22, 2014