Urban-rural differences in breast cancer incidence in Egypt (1999-2006).

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, 109 Observatory Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.
Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland) (Impact Factor: 2.09). 05/2010; 19(5):417-23. DOI: 10.1016/j.breast.2010.04.005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To describe urban-rural differences in breast cancer incidence in Gharbiah, Egypt and to investigate if these differences could be explained by known risk factors of breast cancer.
We used data from the population-based cancer registry of Gharbiah, Egypt to assess breast cancer incidence from 1999 through 2006. The Egyptian census provided data on district-specific population, age, and urban-rural classification. Incidence patterns of breast cancer by district and age-specific urban-rural differences were analyzed.
Overall, incidence rate of breast cancer was three to four times higher in urban areas than in rural areas (60.9/10(5)-year for urban areas versus 17.8/10(5)-year for rural areas; IRR=3.73, 95% CI=3.30, 4.22). Urban areas had consistently higher incidence of breast cancer across all age-groups for all years. Higher incidence of breast cancer was also seen in the more developed districts of Tanta and El-Mehalla.
Higher incidence of breast cancer in urban and more developed populations might be related to higher exposure to xenoestrogens, as well as other endocrine disruptors and genotoxic substances.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the second commonest malignancy in the world. In 2012, approximately 522,000 women died of breast cancer across the world. The aim of this study is to provide an up-to-date analysis of time trends in incidence, geographical distribution, survival and mortality from breast cancer in Wales. Breast cancer cases registered between 1985 and 2012 were identified from the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit (WCISU). A Poisson regression model was fitted to assess temporal trends and rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were determined and compared in relation to age, geographical distribution and mortality across time periods. A total of 60,227 women diagnosed with breast cancer were registered with the Welsh cancer registry between 1985 and 2012. The age-standardised incidence rate of breast cancer was 113.4 per 100,000 populations over the entire study period. There has been a significant increase in the incidence of breast cancer over the study period, although a slight decline was recorded towards the end of the study. There is a considerable regional variation in incidence, with a higher incidence rate in the rural areas compared to urban areas (P<0.001). One- and five-year relative survival improved from 83.3 and 64.2 respectively in 1985-1989 to 91.1 and 78.8 respectively in 2000-2004. There has also been a considerable improvement in relative survival across all age groups. Mortality has improved over the study period with the most dramatic decline in the age groups 45-54 and 55-64 years (P<0.001). There has been a significant increase in the incidence of breast cancer in Wales over the last three decades, which is likely to be partly due to the introduction of the National Health Service Breast Screening Programme. Breast cancer incidence is higher in rural areas than urban areas and lower incidence was seen in more deprived areas. There was a considerable decline in mortality rate across almost all age groups, especially in recent years. However, women over the age of 65 years had poorer outcome throughout the study period.
    Gland surgery. 11/2014; 3(4):237-242.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background. This paper aims to present cancer incidence rates at national and regional level of Egypt, based upon results of National Cancer Registry Program (NCRP). Methods. NCRP stratified Egypt into 3 geographical strata: lower, middle, and upper. One governorate represented each region. Abstractors collected data from medical records of cancer centers, national tertiary care institutions, Health Insurance Organization, Government-Subsidized Treatment Program, and death records. Data entry was online. Incidence rates were calculated at a regional and a national level. Future projection up to 2050 was also calculated. Results. Age-standardized incidence rates per 100,000 were 166.6 (both sexes), 175.9 (males), and 157.0 (females). Commonest sites were liver (23.8%), breast (15.4%), and bladder (6.9%) (both sexes): liver (33.6%) and bladder (10.7%) among men, and breast (32.0%) and liver (13.5%) among women. By 2050, a 3-fold increase in incident cancer relative to 2013 was estimated. Conclusion. These data are the only available cancer rates at national and regional levels of Egypt. The pattern of cancer indicated the increased burden of liver cancer. Breast cancer occupied the second rank. Study of rates of individual sites of cancer might help in giving clues for preventive programs.
    Journal of Cancer Epidemiology 01/2014; 2014:437971.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, we present the results of the interrelation between population density and cancer incidence in the Province of Opole, Poland. The material included demographic data from the Statistical Office in Opole and oncology information obtained from the Cancer Registry in Opole - both research series encompass the five-year plan (years 2006-2010). A geostatistic analysis was performed using a spatial model (called the conditional autoregressive model). Based on the spatial regression coefficients, the strength of the relationship was measured in male and female populations, respectively. The statistical computations were performed in the Bayesian Inference Using Gibbs Sampling (BUGS) platform based on the so-called Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique. The data presented in the study indicate that relative risk of cancer is higher within urban than in rural areas; an increase in population density of a thousand people per sq. km results in a 13% increase in risk of cancer among men and 16% increase in this risk for women.
    Contemporary Oncology / Wspólczesna Onkologia 06/2014; 18(5):367-370. · 0.22 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 2, 2014