Hologram quantitative structure-activity relationships (HQSAR) analysis were conducted on two series of PTP1B inhibitors, 39 2-(oxalylamino) benzoic acid (OBA) analogues and 60 benzofuran and benzothiophene biphenyls (BBB) analogues. The optimal HQSAR model of the OBA analogue has q(2)=0.592 and r(2)=0.940, while the optimal HQSAR model for the BBB analogues shows q(2)=0.667 and r(2)=0.863. Two models were employed to predict the biological activities of two test sets. For OBA analogues, the optimal model was validated by an external test set of six compounds with satisfactory predictive r(2) value of 0.786. For BBB analogues, the optimal model shows satisfactory predictive r(2) value of 0.866 for an external test set of 10 compounds. The contribution maps derived from the optimal HQSAR models are consistent with the biological activities of the studied compounds. Two virtual combinatorial libraries were designed and screened by the optimal HQSAR models and potential candidates with high predictive biological activities were discovered. This work may provide valuable information for future design of more promising inhibitors for PTP1B.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistance to the hormones insulin and leptin are hallmarks in common for type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Both conditions are associated with increased activity and expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)1B. Therefore, inhibition of PTP1B activity or down-regulation of its expression should ameliorate insulin and leptin resistance, and may hold therapeutic utility in type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity control. This background has motivated the fervent search for PTP1B inhibitors, carried out in the recent years. The purpose of this review is to provide the most recent advances in understanding the structural details of PTP1B molecule relevant to the interactions with inhibitors, and the progress towards compounds with enhanced membrane permeability, affinity, specificity, and potency on intracellular PTP1B; several inhibitors of benefit in type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity control are presented and discussed.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2011; 410(3):377-81. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.06.009 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There has been considerable interest in the development of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitors since many of the PTP members are tightly associated with major human diseases including autoimmune disorders, diabetes and cancer. We report here a unique and rapid approach toward the development of novel PTP inhibitor entities based on triazolyl pseudo-glycopeptides. By employing microwave-accelerated Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC or 'click reaction'), a series of triazole-linked serinyl, threoninyl, phenylalaninyl and tyrosinyl 1-O-gluco- or galactosides have been efficiently synthesized in high yields within only ~30 min. Successive biological assay identified these glycopeptidotriazoles as favorable PTP1B and CDC25B inhibitors with selectivity over TCPTP, LAR, SHP-1 and SHP-2. Both the structural diversity of the amino acid (Ser, Thr, Phe and Tyr) introduced and the epimeric identity (Glc or Gal) on monosaccharide scaffold were determined to impact the corresponding inhibitory activity and selectivity. In addition, the benzylated sugar scaffold was demonstrated to act as a crucial role for enhancing the binding affinity of the inhibitors with the targeted PTP. Docking simulation was eventually conducted to propose plausible binding modes of this compound series with PTP1B and CDC25B. Our approach readily realized from naturally abundant raw materials (sugar and amino acid) and via facile, regioselective and expeditious synthetic method (microwave-assisted click reaction) might provide new insights toward the 'click' fabrication of structurally diverse PTP inhibitors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The liver is one of the richest organs in terms of number and density of mitochondria. Most chronic liver diseases are associated with the accumulation of damaged mitochondria. Hepatic mitochondria have unique features compared to other organs' mitochondria, since they are the hub that integrates hepatic metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Mitochondria are also essential in hepatocyte survival as mediator of apoptosis and necrosis. Hepatocytes have developed different mechanisms to keep mitochondrial integrity or to prevent the effects of mitochondrial lesions, in particular regulating organelle biogenesis and degradation. In this paper, we will focus on the role of mitochondria in liver physiology, such as hepatic metabolism, reactive oxygen species homeostasis and cell survival. We will also focus on chronic liver pathologies, especially those linked to alcohol, virus, drugs or metabolic syndrome and we will discuss how mitochondria could provide a promising therapeutic target in these contexts.
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