[Role of surgery in the management of biliary complications after liver transplantation].
ABSTRACT Management of biliary tract complications (BTC) after liver transplantation (LT) has progressed in recent years. The aims of this study were, to analyse the incidence and management in our institution of BTC after 1000 LT; and to study the management of patients with anastomotic strictures (AS). RESULTS: The incidence of BTC was 23%. There were 76 cases of bile leak, 106 cases of anastomotic strictures, 46 non-anastomotic strictures, 42 choledocolithiasis and 19 other complications. Among 106 cases of anastomotic strictures, radiological treatment, either PTC or ERCP, was initially indicated in 62. The AS of 38 patients (33%) were resolved with surgical treatment, 18 of them after a previous attempt at radiological treatment. Patients who were treated initially by radiologically required more procedures. Morbidity and mortality related to BTC were slightly higher in the group of patients treated by radiology (morbidity: surgical: 4 (18%) vs. radiological: 20 (32%); p=0.2 and mortality: surgical: 0% vs. radiological: 8 (11%); p=0.23). Among 46 patients with non-anastomotic strictures, 29 were resolved with retransplantation (63%). CONCLUSIONS: Surgery has a significant role in the management of BTC, and is the treatment of choice in some cases of anastomotic strictures. Retransplantation may be the preferred option in patients with non-anastomotic strictures.
SourceAvailable from: Charles W Putnam
Article: Hepatic transplantation, 1975.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This report reviews experience with 97 patients given liver transplants. We regard out survival statistics as unsatisfactory, but fell they should encourage further work since 22 patients have survived at least one year with a maximum survival of 5 13 YEARS. The Achilles' heel of liver transplantation os bile duct reconstruction. We presently rely upon Roux-en-Y reconstruction, or alternatively, duct-to-duct anastomosis with a T-tube stent. The prime indication for liver replacement is non-neoplastic liver disease, but a favourable malignancy for treatment may prove to be small intrahepatic duct cell carcinomas.Postgraduate Medical Journal 02/1976; 52(5 Suppl):104-8. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Preservation injury to bile ducts is a serious problem in liver transplantation, especially when preservation exceeds 12 hours. The authors hypothesized that the injury was caused by contact of bile ducts with bile salts during cold preservation and might be preventable by infusion of more hydrophilic bile salts. Swine livers were harvested after intraportal infusions of saline (control), of the hydrophobic bile salt taurodeoxycholate, or of the hydrophilic bile salts tauroursodeoxycholate or dehydrocholate. The effect of infusing a combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic bile acids was also studied. Bile samples were taken before and during the infusions. Then livers were perfused with UW solution, ducts were flushed retrograde with UW, and livers were stored at 0 to 1 degree C for 20 hours. Bile ducts were harvested after preservation, and coded microscopic slides of the specimens were examined by light microscopy. There was large variability in baseline bile salt concentration. Injury after preservation consisted of sloughing and pyknosis of surface and glandular epithelium. The histologic injury score determined after preservation was directly related to bile salt concentration in bile ducts at the time of flushing. During bile salt infusions, the infused bile salt replaced most or all of the other bile salts present in bile. Severe postpreservation injury of intrahepatic ducts occurred after taurodeoxycholate infusions, but injury was minimal when either of the two hydrophilic bile salts was infused. The mixture of bile acids produced intermediate results. Retrograde flushing with UW does not prevent injury to intrahepatic ducts. The authors conclude that the injury is caused by contact with bile salts, is dependent on bile salt concentration and composition, and is preventable.Hepatology 05/1995; 21(4):1130-7. DOI:10.1016/0270-9139(95)90265-1 · 11.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study analyzed the incidence and timing of biliary tract complications after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLTx) in 1792 consecutive patients. These results were then compared with those of previously reported series. Finally, recommendations were made on appropriate management strategies. Technical complications after OLTx have a significant impact on patient and graft survival. One of the principal technical advances has been the standardization of techniques for biliary reconstruction. Nonetheless, biliary complications still occur. A 1983 report from the University of Pittsburgh reported biliary complications in 19% of all transplants, and an update in 1987 reported biliary complications in 13.2% of transplants. The medical records of all patients who underwent liver transplantation and were hospitalized between January 1, 1988 and July 31, 1991 were reviewed. The case material consisted of the medical records of 217 patients treated for 245 biliary complications. Primary biliary continuity was established by either choledochocholedochostomy over a T-tube (C-C, n = 129) or a Roux-en-Y choledochojejunostomy with an internal stent (C-RY, n = 85). The overall incidence for biliary complication in this large series was 11.5%. Strictures (n = 93) and bile leak (n = 58) were the most common complications (69.6%). Most biliary complications (n = 143, 66%) occurred within the first 3 months after surgery. In general, leaks occurred early, and strictures developed later. Bile leaks were equally frequent in both C-C and C-RY (27.1% and 25.9%, respectively); strictures were more common after a C-RY type of reconstruction (36.4% and 52.9%, respectively). Twenty-one patients died, an incidence of 9.6%. Fifteen of the 21 biliary-related deaths were among patients treated for rejection before the recognition of biliary tract pathologic findings. Progress has been made on improving the results of biliary reconstruction after OLTx. Nonetheless, patients continue to experience biliary complications after OLTx, and these complications cause considerable loss of grafts and life. If significant additional improvement in patient and graft survival are to be obtained, the technical performance of OLTx must continue to improve.Annals of Surgery 02/1994; 219(1):40-5. DOI:10.1097/00000658-199401000-00007 · 7.19 Impact Factor