High estrogen concentrations in receiving river discharge from a concentrated livestock feedlot

Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan.
Science of The Total Environment (Impact Factor: 4.1). 07/2010; 408(16):3223-30. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.03.054
Source: PubMed


Environmental estrogenic chemicals interrupt endocrine systems and generate reproductive abnormalities in wildlife, especially natural and synthetic estrogenic steroid hormones such as 17beta-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), estriol (E3), 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2), and diethylstilbestrol (DES). Concentrated animal feedlot operations (CAFOs) are of particular concern since large amounts of naturally excreted estrogens are discharged into aquatic environments. This study investigated E2, E1, E3, EE2, and DES with high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass (HPLC-MS/MS) analyses along Wulo Creek in southern Taiwan, near a concentrated livestock feedlot containing 1,030,000 broiler chickens, 934,000 laying hens, 85,000 pigs, and 1500 cattle. Sampling was performed from December 2008 to May 2009, in which 54 samples were collected. Experimental results indicate that concentrations of EE2 were lower than the limit of detection (LOD), and concentrations of DES were only detected twice. Concentrations ranged from 7.4 to 1267 ng/L for E1, from not detected (ND) to 313.6 ng/L for E2, and from ND to 210 ng/L for E3. E1 had the highest average mass fraction (72.2 + or - 3.6%), which was significantly higher than E3 (16.2 + or - 1.7%) and E2 (11.5 + or - 2.6%). Additionally, the mean E2 equivalent quotient (EEQ) ranged from 17.3 to 137.9 ng-E2/L. Despite having a markedly lower concentration than E1, E2 more significantly contributed (52.4 + or - 6.0%) EEQ than E1 (19.7 + or - 3.5%). Moreover, the concentrations of E2, E1, and E3 upstream were significantly higher than concentrations downstream, suggesting a high attenuation effect and fast degradation in the study water. Most concentrations in winter season were higher than those of spring season due to the low dilution effect and low microbial activity in the winter season. Based on the results of this study, we recommend further treatment of the wastewater discharge from the feedlot.

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Available from: Te-San Chen, Apr 14, 2015
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    • "Furthermore, the increasing incidences of cancer and decreasing reproductive fitness in humans are thought to be caused by exposure to estrogenic compounds, including steroidal and phenolic compounds, especially via drinking water (Carlsen et al., 1995; Daston et al., 1997). Besides of waste water treatment plants (WWTP) (Khanal et al., 2006), livestock (Chen et al., 2010; Ciparis et al., 2012) and aquaculture (Kolodziej et al., 2004) discharges were significant nonpoint sources of environmental estrogens. Natural estrogens, such as estrone (E1), E2, estriol (E3) and their metabolites are mainly excreted by humans, livestock and aquaculture with feces and urine (Hanselman et al., 2003; Kolodziej et al., 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: The occurrence and multi-phase distribution of six environmental estrogen compounds were investigated in a drinking water reservoir area by analyzing estrogens in suspended particulate matter (SPM), filtrate (conventional dissolved phase, <1μm), permeate (truly soluble phase, <1kDa) and retentate (colloidal phase, 1kDa to 1μm). The estrogen concentrations at different sites occurred in the following order: animal feed operation (AFO) wastewater-affected streams>tributaries>main stream channel. Correlation analysis showed that organic carbon (OC) contents had significantly positive correlations with environmental estrogens in filtrate, SPM and colloidal phases, respectively, indicating the important role played by OC. Aquatic colloids, often neglected, showed a much higher sorption capability of environmental estrogens compared to SPM. Similar Kcoc values in three types of sampling sites showed that colloids could be transported from AFO wastewater to tributaries and further into the main river channel. Mass balance calculations showed that 14.5-68.4% of OP, 4.5-32.1% of BPA, 2.0-58.4% of E1, 8.36-72.0% of E2, 0-20.6% of EE2, 3.4-62.7% of E3 and 8.3-36.1% of total estrogens were associated with colloidal fractions, suggesting that the colloids could act as a significant sink for environmental estrogens. Risk assessment demonstrated that the occurrence of environmental estrogens might pose a risk to aquatic organisms in the study area.
    Science of The Total Environment 12/2013; 487(1). DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.12.010 · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    • "The above studies suggest that planarians can be sensitive to the effects of sex hormones and industrial EDCs. Both natural and synthetic sex hormones typically occur in freshwater or waste water from below detection limits, ranging up to tens of ng L À1 (Barel-Cohen et al. 2006; Loos et al. 2009; Chen et al. 2010; Liu et al. 2012), whereas industrial EDCs usually occur in freshwater, ranging from low ng L À1 levels, ranging up to hundreds or thousands of ng L À1 (Kiss and Fries 2009; Sandstrom et al. 2005; Voutsa et al. 2006; Benotti et al. 2009; Loos et al. 2009). The difference between planarian LC 50 values and the currently 988 M.-H. "
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    ABSTRACT: Many chemicals commonly occurring in surface water are found to be hormonally active. Fourteen compounds including four sex hormones, three synthetic hormones, one non-steroidal anti-androgen, and six industrial endocrine-disrupting chemicals were selected to examine their acute toxicities on the freshwater planarian, Dugesia japonica. Among all test chemicals, diethylstilbestrol had the highest toxicity. Relatively, the toxicities of the synthetic hormones were higher than the natural ones. Among the six industrial endocrine-disrupting chemicals tested, bisphenol A was the most toxic, with a 48-h LC50 of 8.3 mg L−1. Overall, the natural or synthetic hormones, other than estrone and estriol, were more acutely toxic to planarians than the industrial endocrine disruptors tested. The acute toxicities of the test chemicals to Dugesia japonica were in the same order of magnitude as those to Daphnia magna based on available published data. Despite this study used non-environmentally relevant levels, such kinds of chemicals do not exist singly in the aquatic environment, but typically act in synergistic and/or additive ways in the complex environmental mixtures, and the total estrogen equivalents are much higher than a single chemical. This study stands as a starting point for other acute and chronic assays, namely using mixtures.
    Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 07/2013; 95(6):984-991. DOI:10.1080/02772248.2013.840376 · 0.83 Impact Factor
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    • "this study do not appear to be as serious. Chen et al. (2010) investigated the level of estrogen pollution in the discharge from a concentrated livestock feedlot in southern Taiwan. Their results showed that the estrogen concentrations were 7.4–1,267 ng/L (estrone) and 0–313.6 ng/L (17b-estradiol) based on HPLC–MS/MS analyses. "
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    ABSTRACT: Livestock wastewater has high estrogen activity because animal excreta contain estrogen. In the past, when biological technologies were applied to treat livestock wastewater, the removal efficiency of estrogen pollutants was always ignored. Therefore, the efficiency of estrogen removal by anaerobic/aerobic (A/O) treatment and by up flow anaerobic sludge blanket and step-fed sequencing batch reactor (UASB-SFSBR) treatment was investigated in the present study. The results showed that the A/O treatment had no significant estrogenic removal ability, whereas the removal rates of estrogen after UASB-SFSBR treatment reached approximately 78 %, as measured by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The estrogen concentration decreased from 31.5 ng/L to an undetectable level according to the yeast estrogen screen analysis. We found differences between the estrogen removal rates measured by the chemical assay and those measured using the bioassay. More attention must be paid to the removal of estrogen pollutants in livestock wastewater to reduce the environmental risk.
    Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 12/2012; 90(4). DOI:10.1007/s00128-012-0912-4 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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