High estrogen concentrations in receiving river discharge from a concentrated livestock feedlot.
ABSTRACT Environmental estrogenic chemicals interrupt endocrine systems and generate reproductive abnormalities in wildlife, especially natural and synthetic estrogenic steroid hormones such as 17beta-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), estriol (E3), 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2), and diethylstilbestrol (DES). Concentrated animal feedlot operations (CAFOs) are of particular concern since large amounts of naturally excreted estrogens are discharged into aquatic environments. This study investigated E2, E1, E3, EE2, and DES with high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass (HPLC-MS/MS) analyses along Wulo Creek in southern Taiwan, near a concentrated livestock feedlot containing 1,030,000 broiler chickens, 934,000 laying hens, 85,000 pigs, and 1500 cattle. Sampling was performed from December 2008 to May 2009, in which 54 samples were collected. Experimental results indicate that concentrations of EE2 were lower than the limit of detection (LOD), and concentrations of DES were only detected twice. Concentrations ranged from 7.4 to 1267 ng/L for E1, from not detected (ND) to 313.6 ng/L for E2, and from ND to 210 ng/L for E3. E1 had the highest average mass fraction (72.2 + or - 3.6%), which was significantly higher than E3 (16.2 + or - 1.7%) and E2 (11.5 + or - 2.6%). Additionally, the mean E2 equivalent quotient (EEQ) ranged from 17.3 to 137.9 ng-E2/L. Despite having a markedly lower concentration than E1, E2 more significantly contributed (52.4 + or - 6.0%) EEQ than E1 (19.7 + or - 3.5%). Moreover, the concentrations of E2, E1, and E3 upstream were significantly higher than concentrations downstream, suggesting a high attenuation effect and fast degradation in the study water. Most concentrations in winter season were higher than those of spring season due to the low dilution effect and low microbial activity in the winter season. Based on the results of this study, we recommend further treatment of the wastewater discharge from the feedlot.
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ABSTRACT: This study sampled six times of river water, sediment, and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the Dan-Shui River, Taipei, Taiwan; 10 feminizing compounds were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Bisphenol A (508 ± 634 ng/L, geometric mean (GM) 303 ng/L) and nonylphenol (491 ± 570 ng/L, GM 328 ng/L) were the most abundant among analytes in the river water. Nonylphenol (770 ± 602 ng/g wet weight, GM 617 ng/g wet weight) was also the highest in sediment. Fish may uptake nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates from river water and sediment because there were significant correlations between the concentrations in these matrixes and those in fish tissues (r s ranged from 0.21 to 0.49, p < 0.05). The bioaccumulation of nonylphenol, nonylphenol ethoxylates and bisphenol A in gonad, eggs, and liver was much higher than that in muscle (e.g. mean bioaccumulation factors of nonylphenol were 27,287, 20,971, 9,576 and 967, respectively) and might result in low liver fractions in fish body weights (0.66 % ± 0.39 %, GM 0.55 %) and the skewed sex ratio of fish (male to female = 0.52). This innovative study linked the environmental and internal doses statistically in the globally distributed wild fish by analyzing feminizing compounds in water, sediment, and four fish tissues including gonad and eggs.Environmental Science and Pollution Research 10/2014; 21(19):11349-60. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The contamination of the urban water cycle (UWC) with a wide array of emerging organic compounds (EOCs) increases with urbanization and population density. To produce drinking water from the UWC requires close examination of their sources, occurrence, pathways, and health effects and the efficacy of wastewater treatment and natural attenuation processes that may occur in surface water bodies and groundwater. This paper researches in details the structure of the UWC and investigates the routes by which the water cycle is increasingly contaminated with compounds generated from various anthropogenic activities. Along with a thorough survey of chemicals representing compound classes such as hormones, antibiotics, surfactants, endocrine disruptors, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, X-ray contrast media, pesticides and metabolites, disinfection-by-products, algal toxins and taste-and-odor compounds, this paper provides a comprehensive and holistic review of the occurrence, fate, transport and potential health impact of the emerging organic contaminants of the UWC. This study also illustrates the widespread distribution of the emerging organic contaminants in the different aortas of the ecosystem and focuses on future research needs.Environment International 06/2014; 71C:46-62. · 6.25 Impact Factor