Article

Murine intracochlear drug delivery: Reducing concentration gradients within the cochlea

Department of Electrical and Microelectronic Engineering, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623, USA.
Hearing research (Impact Factor: 2.85). 05/2010; 268(1-2):2-11. DOI: 10.1016/j.heares.2010.04.014
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Direct delivery of compounds to the mammalian inner ear is most commonly achieved by absorption or direct injection through the round window membrane (RWM), or infusion through a basal turn cochleostomy. These methods provide direct access to cochlear structures, but with a strong basal-to-apical concentration gradient consistent with a diffusion-driven distribution. This gradient limits the efficacy of therapeutic approaches for apical structures, and puts constraints on practical therapeutic dose ranges. A surgical approach involving both a basal turn cochleostomy and a posterior semicircular canal canalostomy provides opportunities for facilitated perfusion of cochlear structures to reduce concentration gradients. Infusion of fixed volumes of artificial perilymph (AP) and sodium salicylate were used to evaluate two surgical approaches in the mouse: cochleostomy-only (CO), or cochleostomy-plus-canalostomy (C+C). Cochlear function was evaluated via closed-system distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) threshold level measurements from 8 to 49 kHz. AP infusion confirmed no surgical impact to auditory function, while shifts in DPOAE thresholds were measured during infusion of salicylate and AP (washout). Frequency dependent shifts were compared for the CO and C+C approaches. Computer simulations modeling diffusion, volume flow, interscala transport, and clearance mechanisms provided estimates of drug concentration as a function of cochlear position. Simulated concentration profiles were compared to frequency-dependent shifts in measured auditory responses using a cochlear tonotopic map. The impact of flow rate on frequency dependent DPOAE threshold shifts was also evaluated for both surgical approaches. Both the C+C approach and a flow rate increase were found to provide enhanced response for lower frequencies, with evidence suggesting the C+C approach reduces concentration gradients within the cochlea.

0 Followers
 · 
98 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Diseases of the inner ear include those of the auditory and vestibular systems, and frequently result in disabling hearing loss or vertigo. Despite a rapidly expanding pipeline of potential cochlear therapeutics, the inner ear remains a challenging organ for targeted drug delivery, and new technologies are required to deliver these therapies in a safe and efficacious manner. In addition to traditional approaches for direct inner ear drug delivery, novel microfluidics-based systems are under development, promising improved control over pharmacokinetics over longer periods of delivery, ultimately with application towards hair cell regeneration in humans. Areas covered: Advances in the development of intracochlear drug delivery systems are reviewed, including passive systems, active microfluidic technologies and cochlear prosthesis-mediated delivery. This article provides a description of novel delivery systems and their potential future clinical applications in treating inner ear disease. Expert opinion: Recent progresses in microfluidics and miniaturization technologies are enabling the development of wearable and ultimately implantable drug delivery microsystems. Progress in this field is being spurred by the convergence of advances in molecular biology, microfluidic flow control systems and models for drug transport in the inner ear. These advances will herald a new generation of devices, with near-term applications in preclinical models, and ultimately with human clinical use for a range of diseases of the inner ear.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 10/2014; 12(3):1-15. DOI:10.1517/17425247.2015.974548 · 4.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Delivery of therapeutic compounds to the inner ear via absorption through the round window membrane (RWM) has advantages over direct intracochlear infusions; specifically, minimizing impact upon functional hearing measures. However, previous reports show that significant basal-to-apical concentration gradients occur, with the potential to impact treatment efficacy. Here we present a new approach to inner ear drug delivery with induced advection aiding distribution of compounds throughout the inner ear in the murine cochlea. Polyimide microtubing was placed near the RWM niche through a bullaostomy into the middle ear cavity allowing directed delivery of compounds to the RWM. We hypothesized that a posterior semicircular canalostomy would induce apical flow from the patent cochlear aqueduct to the canalostomy due to influx of cerebral spinal fluid. To test this hypothesis, young adult CBA/CaJ mice were divided into two groups: bullaostomy approach only (BA) and bullaostomy+canalostomy (B+C). Cochlear function was evaluated by distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) and auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds during and after middle ear infusion of salicylate in artificial perilymph (AP), applied near the RWM. The mice recovered for 1week, and were re-tested. The results demonstrate there was no significant impact on auditory function utilizing the RWM surgical procedure with or without the canalostomy, and DPOAE thresholds were elevated reversibly during the salicylate infusion. Comparing the threshold shifts for both methods, the B+C approach had more of a physiological effect than the BA approach, including at lower frequencies representing more apical cochlear locations. Unlike mouse cochleostomies, there was no deleterious auditory functional impact after 1week recovery from surgery. The B+C approach had more drug efficacy at lower frequencies, underscoring potential benefits for more precise control of delivery of inner ear therapeutic compounds.
    Journal of Controlled Release 11/2013; 174. DOI:10.1016/j.jconrel.2013.11.021 · 7.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The goal of this work was to evaluate tissue-device interactions due to implantation of a mechanically operated drug delivery system onto the posterior sclera. Two test devices were designed and fabricated to model elements of the drug delivery device-one containing a free-spinning ball bearing and the other encasing two articulating gears. Openings in the base of test devices modeled ports for drug passage from device to sclera. Porous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) membranes were attached to half of the gear devices to minimize tissue ingrowth through these ports. Test devices were sutured onto rabbit eyes for 10 weeks. Tissue-device interactions were evaluated histologically and mechanically after removal to determine effects on device function and changes in surrounding tissue. Test devices were generally well-tolerated during residence in the animal. All devices encouraged fibrous tissue formation between the sclera and the device, fibrous tissue encapsulation and invasion around the device, and inflammation of the conjunctiva. Gear devices encouraged significantly greater inflammation in all cases and a larger rate of tissue ingrowth. PTFE membranes prevented tissue invasion through the covered drug ports, though tissue migrated in through other smaller openings. The torque required to turn the mechanical elements increased over 1000 times for gear devices, but only on the order of 100 times for membrane-covered gear devices and less than 100 times for ball bearing devices. Maintaining a lower device profile, minimizing microscale motion on the eye surface and covering drug ports with a porous membrane may minimize inflammation, decreasing the risk of damage to surrounding tissues and minimizing disruption of device operation.
    Pharmaceutics 12/2012; 4(1):212-229. DOI:10.3390/pharmaceutics4010212

Full-text

Download
54 Downloads
Available from
Jun 4, 2014