Brief reports: paravertebral block for anesthesia: a systematic review.
ABSTRACT The objective of this review was to assess the safety and efficacy of thoracic and lumbar paravertebral blocks (PVBs) for surgical anesthesia through a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature. PVBs for surgical anesthesia were compared with general anesthesia (GA) or other regional anesthetic techniques.
We searched literature databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library up to May 2008. Included studies were limited to eligible randomized controlled trials. Eight randomized controlled trials were included in this review, 6 of which used PVBs for anesthesia during breast surgery, and 2 trials used PVB for anesthesia during herniorrhaphy.
The ability to obtain firm conclusions was limited by the diversity of outcomes and how they were measured, which varied across studies. The PVB failure rate was not >13%, and patients were more satisfied with PVB than with GA. There was some indication that PVB could achieve shorter hospital stays than GA. PVB for anesthesia substantially reduces nausea and vomiting in comparison with GA (relative risk: 0.25, 95% CI: 0.13-0.50; P < 0.05), although it does carry a risk of pleural puncture and epidural spread of local anesthetic.
In conclusion, based on the current evidence, PVBs for surgical anesthesia at the level of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae are associated with less pain during the immediate postoperative period, as well as less postoperative nausea and vomiting, and greater patient satisfaction compared with GA.
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ABSTRACT: Day surgery, coming to and leaving the hospital on the same day as surgery as well as ambulatory surgery, leaving hospital within twenty-three hours is increasingly being adopted. There are several potential benefits associated with the avoidance of in-hospital care. Early discharge demands a rapid recovery and low incidence and intensity of surgery and anaesthesia related side-effects; such as pain, nausea and fatigue. Patients must be fit enough and symptom intensity so low that self-care is feasible in order to secure quality of care. Preventive multi-modal analgesia has become the gold standard. Administering paracetamol, NSIADs prior to start of surgery and decreasing the noxious influx by the use of local anaesthetics by peripheral block or infiltration in surgical field prior to incision and at wound closure in combination with intra-operative fast acting opioid analgesics, e.g., remifentanil, have become standard of care. Single preoperative 0.1 mg/kg dose dexamethasone has a combined action, anti-emetic and provides enhanced analgesia. Additional α-2-agonists and/or gabapentin or pregabalin may be used in addition to facilitate the pain management if patients are at risk for more pronounced pain. Paracetamol, NSAIDs and rescue oral opioid is the basic concept for self-care during the first 3-5 days after common day/ambulatory surgical procedures.Pharmaceuticals 08/2014; 7(8):850-65.
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ABSTRACT: The most recent systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the analgesic efficacy and side effects of paravertebral and epidural blockade for thoracotomy was published in 2006. Nine well-designed randomized trials with controversial results have been published since then. The present report constitutes an updated meta-analysis of this issue. Thoracotomy is a major surgical procedure and is associated with severe postoperative pain. Epidural analgesia is the gold standard for post-thoracotomy pain management, but has its limitations and contraindications, and paravertebral blockade is increasingly popular. However, it has not been decided whether the analgesic effect of the two methods is comparable, or whether paravertebral blockade leads to a lower incidence of adverse side effects after thoracotomy. Two reviewers independently searched the databases PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (last performed on 1 February, 2013) for reports of studies comparing post-thoracotomy epidural analgesia and paravertebral blockade. The same individuals independently extracted data from the appropriate studies. Eighteen trials involving 777 patients were included in the current analysis. There was no significant difference in pain scores between paravertebral blockade and epidural analgesia at 4-8, 24, 48 hours, and the rates of pulmonary complications and morphine usage during the first 24 hours were also similar. However, paravertebral blockade was better than epidural analgesia in reducing the incidence of urinary retention (p<0.0001), nausea and vomiting (p = 0.01), hypotension (p<0.00001), and rates of failed block were lower in the paravertebral blockade group (p = 0.01). This meta-analysis showed that PVB can provide comparable pain relief to traditional EPI, and may have a better side-effect profile for pain relief after thoracic surgery. Further high-powered randomized trials are to need to determine whether PVB truly offers any advantages over EPI.PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e96233. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There has been a renewed interest in supraclavicular and paravertebral blocks for regional anesthesia. Studies have shown a high block success rate with the supraclavicular approach to the brachial plexus. Despite the use of ultrasound, pleural puncture and pneumothorax may still occur. The supraclavicular block is associated with a higher incidence of phrenic nerve paralysis and caution should be advised in patients with respiratory difficulties. Paravertebral blocks have been used successfully to provide analgesia and anesthesia for a variety of surgical procedures. When compared to thoracic epidural blockade for thoracic surgery, paravertebral blockade provides comparable analgesia with a better preservation of pulmonary function and a lower incidence of hypotension. This brings forth the question as to whether paravertebral blocks have replaced epidural blockade as the gold standard in perioperative pain management for thoracoabdominal procedures.Baillière' s Best Practice and Research in Clinical Anaesthesiology 06/2014;