Hemopoietic and angiogenetic progenitors in healthy athletes: different responses to endurance and maximal exercise.
ABSTRACT The effects of endurance or maximal exercise on mobilization of bone marrow-derived hemopoietic and angiogenetic progenitors in healthy subjects are poorly defined. In 10 healthy amateur runners, we collected venous blood before, at the end of, and the day after a marathon race (n = 9), and before and at the end of a 1.5-km field test (n = 8), and measured hemopoietic and angiogenetic progenitors by flow cytometry and culture assays, as well as plasma or serum concentrations of several cytokines/growth factors. After the marathon, CD34(+) cells were unchanged, whereas clonogenetic assays showed decreased number of colonies for both erythropoietic (BFU-E) and granulocyte-monocyte (CFU-GM) series, returning to baseline the morning post-race. Conversely, CD34(+) cells, BFU-E, and CFU-GM increased after the field test. Angiogenetic progenitors, assessed as CD34(+)KDR(+) and CD133(+)VE-cadherin(+) cells or as adherent cells in culture expressing endothelial markers, increased after both endurance and maximal exercise but showed a different pattern between protocols. Interleukin-6 increased more after the marathon than after the field test, whereas hepatocyte growth factor and stem cell factor increased similarly in both protocols. Plasma levels of angiopoietin (Ang) 1 and 2 increased after both types of exercise, whereas the Ang-1-to-Ang-2 ratio or vascular endothelial growth factor-A were little affected. These data suggest that circulating hemopoietic progenitors may be utilized in peripheral tissues during prolonged endurance exercise. Endothelial progenitor mobilization after exercise in healthy trained subjects appears modulated by the type of exercise. Exercise-induced increase in growth factors suggests a physiological trophic effect of exercise on the bone marrow.
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ABSTRACT: Niño O, Javierre C, Blasi J, Miguel M, Esteve F, Alamo J, Corral L, Ventura J. Circulating CD34+ Progenitor Cells in the Days Following a 100 Km Walking Race. JEPonline 2014;17(5):65-72. The purpose of this study was to observe the changes in the number of circulating CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells (CPC) in 6 subjects the days after a 100 km foot race. All subjects who were members of a young and healthy male team that took part in the 2011 Intermon Oxfam Trailwalker. Statistically significant differences were observed in the active subjects (AS) group, which showed a 3.5-fold increase (range 3.2 to 3.6) in the number of CD34+ cells 5 days after the race (2 = 8.2, P = 0.04). This study has provided initial evidence of important medium-term changes in CPC levels following a long endurance foot race exercise. The results suggest that different exercise protocols and their possible repercussions need to be evaluated by using more repeated measures than is usual.Journal of Exercise Physiology Online 10/2014; 17(5):65-72.
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ABSTRACT: A recent study showed that ergometry increased circulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (CPC) numbers, but reduced hematopoietic colony forming capacity/functionality under normoxia and normobaric hypoxia. Herein we investigated whether an exercise-induced elevated plasma free/bound norepinephrine (NE) concentration could be responsible for directly influencing CPC functionality. Venous blood was taken from ten healthy male subjects (25.3+/-4.4 yrs) before and 4 times after ergometry under normoxia and normobaric hypoxia (FiO2<0.15). The circulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell numbers were correlated with free/bound NE, free/bound epinephrine (EPI), cortisol (Co) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Additionally, the influence of exercise-induced NE and blood lactate (La) on CPC functionality was analyzed in a randomly selected group of subjects (n = 6) in vitro under normoxia by secondary colony-forming unit granulocyte macrophage assays. Concentrations of free NE, EPI, Co and IL-6 were significantly increased post-exercise under normoxia/hypoxia. Ergometry-induced free NE concentrations found in vivo showed a significant impairment of CPC functionality in vitro under normoxia. Thus, ergometry-induced free NE was thought to trigger CPC mobilization 10 minutes post-exercise, but as previously shown impairs CPC proliferative capacity/functionality at the same time. The obtained results suggest that an ergometry-induced free NE concentration has a direct negative effect on CPC functionality. Cortisol may further influence CPC dynamics and functionality.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(9):e106120. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Our goal was to test whether short-term intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) at a level well tolerated by healthy humans could, in combination with muscle electro-stimulation (ME), mobilize circulating progenitor cells (CPC) and increase their concentration in peripheral circulation.Journal of Translational Medicine 06/2014; 12(1):174. · 3.99 Impact Factor