Hemopoietic and angiogenetic progenitors in healthy athletes: different responses to endurance and maximal exercise
ABSTRACT The effects of endurance or maximal exercise on mobilization of bone marrow-derived hemopoietic and angiogenetic progenitors in healthy subjects are poorly defined. In 10 healthy amateur runners, we collected venous blood before, at the end of, and the day after a marathon race (n = 9), and before and at the end of a 1.5-km field test (n = 8), and measured hemopoietic and angiogenetic progenitors by flow cytometry and culture assays, as well as plasma or serum concentrations of several cytokines/growth factors. After the marathon, CD34(+) cells were unchanged, whereas clonogenetic assays showed decreased number of colonies for both erythropoietic (BFU-E) and granulocyte-monocyte (CFU-GM) series, returning to baseline the morning post-race. Conversely, CD34(+) cells, BFU-E, and CFU-GM increased after the field test. Angiogenetic progenitors, assessed as CD34(+)KDR(+) and CD133(+)VE-cadherin(+) cells or as adherent cells in culture expressing endothelial markers, increased after both endurance and maximal exercise but showed a different pattern between protocols. Interleukin-6 increased more after the marathon than after the field test, whereas hepatocyte growth factor and stem cell factor increased similarly in both protocols. Plasma levels of angiopoietin (Ang) 1 and 2 increased after both types of exercise, whereas the Ang-1-to-Ang-2 ratio or vascular endothelial growth factor-A were little affected. These data suggest that circulating hemopoietic progenitors may be utilized in peripheral tissues during prolonged endurance exercise. Endothelial progenitor mobilization after exercise in healthy trained subjects appears modulated by the type of exercise. Exercise-induced increase in growth factors suggests a physiological trophic effect of exercise on the bone marrow.
SourceAvailable from: Oscar Adolfo Niño Mendez[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Niño O, Javierre C, Blasi J, Miguel M, Esteve F, Alamo J, Corral L, Ventura J. Circulating CD34+ Progenitor Cells in the Days Following a 100 Km Walking Race. JEPonline 2014;17(5):65-72. The purpose of this study was to observe the changes in the number of circulating CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells (CPC) in 6 subjects the days after a 100 km foot race. All subjects who were members of a young and healthy male team that took part in the 2011 Intermon Oxfam Trailwalker. Statistically significant differences were observed in the active subjects (AS) group, which showed a 3.5-fold increase (range 3.2 to 3.6) in the number of CD34+ cells 5 days after the race (2 = 8.2, P = 0.04). This study has provided initial evidence of important medium-term changes in CPC levels following a long endurance foot race exercise. The results suggest that different exercise protocols and their possible repercussions need to be evaluated by using more repeated measures than is usual.Journal of Exercise Physiology Online 10/2014; 17(5):65-72.
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ABSTRACT: Although amateur sports have become increasingly competitive within recent decades, there are as yet few studies on the possible health risks for athletes. This study aims to determine the impact of ultra-endurance exercise-induced stress on the number and function of circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells (CPCs) and hematological, inflammatory, clinical, metabolic, and stress parameters in moderately trained amateur athletes. Following ultra-endurance exercise, there were significant increases in leukocytes, platelets, interleukin-6, fibrinogen, tissue enzymes, blood lactate, serum cortisol, and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Ultra-endurance exercise did not influence the number of CPCs but resulted in a highly significant decline of CPC functionality after the competition. Furthermore, Epstein-Barr virus was seen to be reactivated in one of seven athletes. The link between exercise-induced stress and decline of CPC functionality is supported by a negative correlation between cortisol and CPC function. We conclude that ultra-endurance exercise induces metabolic stress and an inflammatory response that affects not only mature hematopoietic cells but also the function of the immature hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell fraction, which make up the immune system and provide for regeneration.Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 01/2015; DOI:10.1111/sms.12347 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Directed By: Professor James M. Hagberg, Department of Kinesiology This dissertation research comprised three studies examining the effects of acute and chronic endurance exercise on circulating angiogenic cells (CACs). Because the balance between nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a critical aspect of the physiological function/dysfunction of CACs, each study determined the effects of exercise on NO-ROS balance within a variety of CAC types. Study #1 demonstrated that regular endurance exercise is associated with greater basal intracellular NO levels in cultured CACs, and that one mechanism underlying this association was increased NADPH oxidase enzyme activity in the sedentary state. Study #2 suggested an association between a sedentary lifestyle and increased nitro-oxidative stress in freshly-isolated CD34 + progenitor cells. Study #3 demonstrated that prior exercise attenuates high-fat meal induced-increases in mitochondrial-derived intracellular ROS in CD31 + CACs. Overall, it is concluded that acute and chronic endurance exercise enhance intracellular NO and ROS dynamics in CACs.