Determinants of VIA (Visual Inspection of the Cervix After Acetic Acid Application) positivity in cervical cancer screening of women in a peri-urban area in Andhra Pradesh, India.
ABSTRACT Visual inspection of the cervix after acetic acid application (VIA) is widely recommended as the method of choice in cervical cancer screening programs in resource-limited settings because of its simplicity and ability to link with immediate treatment. In testing the effectiveness of VIA, human papillomavirus DNA testing, and Pap cytology in a population-based study in a peri-urban area in Andhra Pradesh, India, we found the sensitivity of VIA for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and worse (CIN2+) to be 26.3%, much lower than the 60% to 90% reported in the literature. We therefore investigated the determinants of VIA positivity in our study population.
We evaluated VIA positivity by demographics and reproductive history, results of clinical examination, and results from the other screening methods.
Of the 19 women diagnosed with CIN2+, only 5 were positive by VIA (positive predictive value, 3.1%). In multivariate analysis, VIA positivity (12.74%) was associated with older age, positive Pap smear, visually apparent cervical inflammation, and interobserver variation. Cervical inflammation of unknown cause was present in 21.62% of women. In disease-negative women, cervical inflammation was associated with an increase in VIA positivity from 6.1% to 15.5% (P<0.001). Among the six gynecologists who performed VIA, the positivity rate varied from 4% to 31%.
The interpretation of VIA is subjective and its performance cannot be readily evaluated against objective standards.
VIA is not a robust screening test and we caution against its use as the primary screening test in resource-limited regions.
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ABSTRACT: Organised and quality assured cytology-based screening programmes have substantially reduced cervical cancer incidence in many developed countries. However, there are considerable barriers to setting up cytology-based screening programs, particularly in developing countries. This has stimulated the search for novel and alternative approaches to cytology for cervical cancer prevention. These approaches generally perform as well as cytology, and sometimes better, although many of them have a lower specificity, resulting in higher false-positive rates. The possibility of linking screening to treatment in a one- or two-visit strategy appears to be safe, feasible and effective. Barriers to establishing screening programs and the pitfalls encountered differ from one country to the next. Country-specific solutions need to be found, while being cognizant of the criteria that have enabled successful screening programmes.Vaccine 09/2006; 24 Suppl 3:S3/71-7. · 3.77 Impact Factor
Article: A new HPV-DNA test for cervical-cancer screening in developing regions: a cross-sectional study of clinical accuracy in rural China.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A new test (careHPV; QIAGEN, Gaithersburg, MD, USA) has been developed to detect 14 high-risk types of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) in about 2.5 h, to screen women in developing regions for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). We did a cross-sectional study to assess the clinical accuracy of careHPV as a rapid screening test in two county hospitals in rural China. From May 10 to June 15, 2007, the careHPV test was done locally by use of self-obtained vaginal and provider-obtained cervical specimens from a screening population-based set of 2530 women aged 30 to 54 years in Shanxi province, China. All women were assessed by visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), Digene High-Risk HPV HC2 DNA Test (HC2), liquid-based cytology, and colposcopy with directed biopsy and endocervical curettage as necessary. In 2388 women with complete data, 441 women with negative colposcopy, but unsatisfactory or abnormal cytology or who were positive on HC2 or the new careHPV test, were recalled for a second colposcopy, four-quadrant cervical biopsies, and endocervical curettage. An absence of independence between the tests was not adjusted for and the Bonferroni correction was used for multiple comparisons. Complete data were available for 2388 (94.4%) women. 70 women had CIN2+ (moderate or severe CIN or cancer), of whom 23 had CIN3+. By use of CIN2+ as the reference standard and area-under-the-curve analysis with a two-sided alpha error level of 0.0083, the sensitivities and specificities of the careHPV test for a cut-off ratio cut-point of 0.5 relative light units, were 90.0% (95% CI 83.0-97.0) and 84.2% (82.7-85.7), respectively, on cervical specimens, and 81.4% (72.3-90.5) and 82.4% (80.8-83.9), respectively, on vaginal specimens (areas under the curve not significantly different, p=0.0596), compared with 41.4% (29.9-53.0) and 94.5% (93.6-95.4) for VIA (areas under the curve significantly different, p=0.0001 and p=0.0031, for cervical and vaginal-specimen comparisons for the careHPV test, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity of HC2 for cervical specimens were 97.1% (93.2-100) and 85.6% (84.2-87.1), respectively (areas under the curve not significantly different from the careHPV test on cervical specimens, p=0.0163). The careHPV test is promising as a primary screening method for cervical-cancer prevention in low-resource regions.The lancet oncology 09/2008; 9(10):929-36. · 14.47 Impact Factor
Article: Suitability of self-collected vaginal samples for cervical cancer screening in periurban villages in Andhra Pradesh, India.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Our aim was to determine if (1) Hybrid Capture 2 and a PCR-based method were comparable for detection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) clinician-collected and self-collected samples were equally efficient to detect HPV and cervical cancer precursor lesions, and (3) if participation rates improved with home-based versus clinic-based self collection. Samples were selected from women participating in a cervical cancer screening study according to HPV, visual inspection with acetic acid, or Pap smear screening results. From 432 of 892 selected women, split sample aliquots were tested for HPV DNA using both the Hybrid Capture 2 assay and the Roche prototype line blot assay. Women from a subset of villages were recruited at two separate time points for clinic-based self-collection and home-based self-collection, and participation rates were compared. Pairwise agreement between self- and clinician-collected samples was high by both Hybrid Capture 2 (90.8% agreement, kappa = 0.7) and PCR (92.6% agreement, kappa = 0.8), with significantly increased high-risk HPV detection in clinician-collected specimens (McNemar's P < 0.01). Ability to detect precursor lesions was highest by PCR testing of clinician-collected samples and lowest by Hybrid Capture 2 testing of self-collected samples (11 of 11 and 9 of 11 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 and cancer detected, respectively). Participation in home-based screening was significantly higher than clinic-based screening (71.5% and 53.8%, respectively; P < 0.001) among women ages 30 to 45 years. The combination of improved screening coverage and a high single test sensitivity afforded by HPV DNA testing of home-based self-collected swabs may have a greater programmatic effect on cervical cancer mortality reduction compared with programs requiring a pelvic exam.Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 05/2009; 18(5):1373-8. · 4.12 Impact Factor