Induction of heart failure by minimally invasive aortic constriction in mice: reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator levels and mitochondrial dysfunction.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Leipzig Heart Center, Leipzig, Germany.
The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery (Impact Factor: 3.41). 05/2010; 141(2):492-500, 500.e1. DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2010.03.029
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mitochondrial dysfunction has been suggested as a potential cause for heart failure. Pressure overload is a common cause for heart failure. However, implementing pressure overload in mice is considered a model for compensated hypertrophy but not for heart failure. We assessed the suitability of minimally invasive transverse aortic constriction to induce heart failure in C57BL/6 mice and assessed mitochondrial biogenesis and function.
Minimally invasive transverse aortic constriction was performed through a ministernotomy without intubation (minimally invasive transverse aortic constriction, n = 68; sham operation, n = 43). Hypertrophy was assessed based on heart weight/body weight ratios and histologic analyses, and contractile function was assessed based on intracardiac Millar pressure measurements. Expression of selected metabolic genes was assessed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Maximal respiratory capacity (state 3) of isolated mitochondria was measured with a Clark-type electrode.
Survival was 62%. Within 7 weeks, minimally invasive transverse aortic constriction induced significant hypertrophy (heart weight/body weight ratio: 10.08±0.28 mg/g for minimally invasive transverse aortic constriction vs 4.66±0.07 mg/g for sham operation; n=68; P<.01). Fifty-seven percent of mice undergoing minimally invasive transverse aortic constriction displayed signs of heart failure (pleural effusions, dyspnea, weight loss, and dp/dtmax of 3114±422 mm Hg/s, P<.05). All of them had heart weight/body weight ratios of greater than 10. Mice undergoing minimally invasive transverse aortic constriction with heart weight/body weight ratios of less than 10 had normal contractile function (dp/dtmax of 6471±292 mm Hg/s vs dp/dtmax of 6933±205 mmHg/s in sham mice) and no clinical signs of heart failure. The mitochondrial coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator alpha (PGC-1α) was downregulated in failing hearts only. PGC-1α and fatty acid oxidation gene expression were also decreased in failing hearts. State 3 respiration of isolated mitochondria was significantly reduced in all hearts subjected to pressure overload.
Contractile dysfunction and heart failure can be induced in wild-type mice by means of minimally invasive aortic constriction. Pressure overload-induced heart failure in mice is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, as characterized by downregulation of PGC-1α and reduced oxidative capacity.

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