Induction of heart failure by minimally invasive aortic constriction in mice: reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator levels and mitochondrial dysfunction.
ABSTRACT Mitochondrial dysfunction has been suggested as a potential cause for heart failure. Pressure overload is a common cause for heart failure. However, implementing pressure overload in mice is considered a model for compensated hypertrophy but not for heart failure. We assessed the suitability of minimally invasive transverse aortic constriction to induce heart failure in C57BL/6 mice and assessed mitochondrial biogenesis and function.
Minimally invasive transverse aortic constriction was performed through a ministernotomy without intubation (minimally invasive transverse aortic constriction, n = 68; sham operation, n = 43). Hypertrophy was assessed based on heart weight/body weight ratios and histologic analyses, and contractile function was assessed based on intracardiac Millar pressure measurements. Expression of selected metabolic genes was assessed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Maximal respiratory capacity (state 3) of isolated mitochondria was measured with a Clark-type electrode.
Survival was 62%. Within 7 weeks, minimally invasive transverse aortic constriction induced significant hypertrophy (heart weight/body weight ratio: 10.08±0.28 mg/g for minimally invasive transverse aortic constriction vs 4.66±0.07 mg/g for sham operation; n=68; P<.01). Fifty-seven percent of mice undergoing minimally invasive transverse aortic constriction displayed signs of heart failure (pleural effusions, dyspnea, weight loss, and dp/dtmax of 3114±422 mm Hg/s, P<.05). All of them had heart weight/body weight ratios of greater than 10. Mice undergoing minimally invasive transverse aortic constriction with heart weight/body weight ratios of less than 10 had normal contractile function (dp/dtmax of 6471±292 mm Hg/s vs dp/dtmax of 6933±205 mmHg/s in sham mice) and no clinical signs of heart failure. The mitochondrial coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator alpha (PGC-1α) was downregulated in failing hearts only. PGC-1α and fatty acid oxidation gene expression were also decreased in failing hearts. State 3 respiration of isolated mitochondria was significantly reduced in all hearts subjected to pressure overload.
Contractile dysfunction and heart failure can be induced in wild-type mice by means of minimally invasive aortic constriction. Pressure overload-induced heart failure in mice is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, as characterized by downregulation of PGC-1α and reduced oxidative capacity.
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ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction is frequently observed in vascular diseases. Cilostazol is a drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of intermittent claudication. Cilostazol increases intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels through inhibition of type III phosphodiesterase. The effects of cilostazol in mitochondrial biogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were investigated in this study. Cilostazol treated HUVECs displayed increased levels of ATP, mitochondrial DNA/nuclear DNA ratio, expressions of cytochrome B, and mitochondrial mass, suggesting an enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis induced by cilostazol. The promoted mitochondrial biogenesis could be abolished by Protein Kinase A (PKA) specific inhibitor H-89, implying that PKA pathway played a critical role in increased mitochondrial biogenesis after cilostazol treatment. Indeed, expression levels of peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma-coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), NRF 1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) were significantly increased in HUVECs after incubation with cilostazol at both mRNA levels and protein levels. Importantly, knockdown of PGC-1α could abolish cilostazol- induced mitochondrial biogenesis. Enhanced expression of p-CREB and PGC-1α induced by cilostazol could be inhibited by H-89. Moreover, the increased expression of PGC-1α induced by cilostazol could be inhibited by downregulation of CREB using CREB siRNA at both mRNA and protein levels. All the results indicated that cilostazol promoted mitochondrial biogenesis through activating the expression of PGC-1α in HUVECs, which was mediated by PKA/CREB pathway.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2013; · 2.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Alterations in cardiac energy and substrate metabolism play a critical role in the development and clinical course of heart failure. We hypothesized that the cardioprotective role of the breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) gene might be mediated in part by alterations in cardiac bioenergetics. METHODS: We generated cardiomyocyte-specific BRCA1 homozygous and heterozygous knockout mice using the Cre-loxP technology and evaluated the key molecules and pathways involved in glucose metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and mitochondrial bioenergetics. RESULTS: Cardiomyocyte-specific BRCA1-deficient mice showed reduced cardiac expression of glucose and fatty acid transporters, reduced acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase 2 and malonyl-coenzyme A decarboxylase (key enzymes that control malonyl coenzyme A, which in turn controls fatty acid oxidation), and reduced carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, a rate-limiting enzyme for mitochondrial fatty acid uptake. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and γ and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I levels were also downregulated in these hearts. Rates of glucose and fatty acid oxidation were reduced in the hearts of heterozygous cardiomyocyte-restricted BRCA1-deficient mice, resulting in a decrease in the rate of adenosine triphosphate production. This decrease in metabolism and adenosine triphosphate production occurred despite an increase in 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and AKT activation in the heart. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiomyocyte-specific loss of BRCA1 alters critical pathways of fatty acid and glucose metabolism, leading to an energy starved heart. BRCA1-based cell or gene therapy might serve as a novel target to improve cardiac bioenergetics in patients with heart failure.The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 01/2013; · 3.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The heart has a high rate of ATP production and turnover that is required to maintain its continuous mechanical work. Perturbations in ATP-generating processes may therefore affect contractile function directly. Characterizing cardiac metabolism in heart failure (HF) revealed several metabolic alterations called metabolic remodeling, ranging from changes in substrate use to mitochondrial dysfunction, ultimately resulting in ATP deficiency and impaired contractility. However, ATP depletion is not the only relevant consequence of metabolic remodeling during HF. By providing cellular building blocks and signaling molecules, metabolic pathways control essential processes such as cell growth and regeneration. Thus, alterations in cardiac metabolism may also affect the progression to HF by mechanisms beyond ATP supply. Our aim is therefore to highlight that metabolic remodeling in HF not only results in impaired cardiac energetics but also induces other processes implicated in the development of HF such as structural remodeling and oxidative stress. Accordingly, modulating cardiac metabolism in HF may have significant therapeutic relevance that goes beyond the energetic aspect.Circulation Research 08/2013; 113(6):709-24. · 11.86 Impact Factor