Recent progress and understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the rice-Magnaporthe oryzae interaction.
ABSTRACT Rice blast, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, is the most devastating disease of rice and severely affects crop stability and sustainability worldwide. This disease has advanced to become one of the premier model fungal pathosystems for host-pathogen interactions because of the depth of comprehensive studies in both species using modern genetic, genomic, proteomic and bioinformatic approaches. Many fungal genes involved in pathogenicity and rice genes involved in effector recognition and defence responses have been identified over the past decade. Specifically, the cloning of a total of nine avirulence (Avr) genes in M. oryzae, 13 rice resistance (R) genes and two rice blast quantitative trait loci (QTLs) has provided new insights into the molecular basis of fungal and plant interactions. In this article, we consider the new findings on the structure and function of the recently cloned R and Avr genes, and provide perspectives for future research directions towards a better understanding of the molecular underpinnings of the rice-M. oryzae interaction.
- SourceAvailable from: Marc Lebrun[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The avirulence gene ACE1 from the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea encodes a polyketide synthase (PKS) fused to a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) probably involved in the biosynthesis of a secondary metabolite recognized by Pi33 resistant rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars. Analysis of the M. grisea genome revealed that ACE1 is located in a cluster of 15 genes, of which 14 are potentially involved in secondary metabolism as they encode enzymes such as a second PKS-NRPS (SYN2), two enoyl reductases (RAP1 and RAP2) and a putative Zn(II)(2)Cys(6) transcription factor (BC2). These 15 genes are specifically expressed during penetration into the host plant, defining an infection-specific gene cluster. A pORF3-GFP transcriptional fusion showed that the highly expressed ORF3 gene from the ACE1 cluster is only expressed in appressoria, as is ACE1. Phenotypic analysis of deletion or disruption mutants of SYN2 and RAP2 showed that they are not required for avirulence in Pi33 rice cultivars, unlike ACE1. Inactivation of other genes was unsuccessful because targeted gene replacement and disruption were inefficient at this locus. Overall, the ACE1 gene cluster displays an infection-specific expression pattern restricted to the penetration stage which is probably controlled at the transcriptional level and reflects regulatory networks specific to early stages of infection.New Phytologist 02/2008; 179(1):196-208. · 6.74 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A small GTPase, Rac1, plays a key role in rice (Oryza sativa) innate immunity as part of a complex of regulatory proteins. Here, we used affinity column chromatography to identify rice RACK1 (for Receptor for Activated C-Kinase 1) as an interactor with Rac1. RACK1 functions in various mammalian signaling pathways and is involved in hormone signaling and development in plants. Rice contains two RACK1 genes, RACK1A and RACK1B, and the RACK1A protein interacts with the GTP form of Rac1. Rac1 positively regulates RACK1A at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. RACK1A transcription was also induced by a fungal elicitor and by abscisic acid, jasmonate, and auxin. Analysis of transgenic rice plants and cell cultures indicates that RACK1A plays a role in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and in resistance against rice blast infection. Overexpression of RACK1A enhances ROS production in rice seedlings. RACK1A was shown to interact with the N terminus of NADPH oxidase, RAR1, and SGT1, key regulators of plant disease resistance. These results suggest that RACK1A functions in rice innate immunity by interacting with multiple proteins in the Rac1 immune complex.The Plant Cell 09/2008; 20(8):2265-79. · 9.25 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Phytopathogenic bacteria suppress plant innate immunity and promote pathogenesis by injecting proteins called type III effectors into plant cells using a type III protein secretion system. These type III effectors use at least three strategies to alter host responses. One strategy is to alter host protein turnover, either by direct cleavage or by modulating ubiquitination and targeting the 26S proteasome. Another strategy involves alteration of RNA metabolism by transcriptional activation or ADP-ribosylation of RNA-binding proteins. A third major strategy is to inhibit the kinases involved in plant defence signaling, either by the removal of phosphates or by direct inhibition. The wide array of strategies that bacterial pathogens employ to suppress innate immunity suggest that circumvention of innate immunity is crucial for bacterial pathogenicity of plants.Current Opinion in Plant Biology 08/2008; 11(4):396-403. · 8.46 Impact Factor