Adrenomedullary Function in Patients with Nonclassic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
ABSTRACT Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is classified into three types based on disease severity: classic salt-wasting, classic simple virilizing, and nonclassic. Adrenomedullary dysplasia and epinephrine deficiency have been described in classic CAH, resulting in glucose dysregulation. Our objective was to investigate adrenomedullary function in nonclassic CAH and to evaluate adrenomedullary function according to disease severity. Adrenomedullary function was evaluated in response to a standardized cycle ergonometer test in 23 CAH patients (14 females, age 9-38 years; 6 salt-wasting, 7 simple virilizing, 5 nonclassic receiving glucocorticoid treatment, 5 nonclassic not receiving glucocorticoid), and 14 controls (7 females, age 12-38 years). Epinephrine, glucose, and cortisol were measured at baseline and peak exercise. CAH patients and controls were similar in age and anthropometric measures. Patients with nonclassic CAH who were not receiving glucocorticoid and controls experienced the expected stress-induced rise in epinephrine, glucose, and cortisol. Compared to controls, patients with all types of CAH receiving glucocorticoid had impaired exercise-induced changes in epinephrine (salt-wasting: p=0.01;simple virilizing: p=0.01; nonclassic: p=0.03), and cortisol (salt-wasting: p=0.004; simple virilizing: p=0.006; nonclassic: p=0.03). Salt-wasting patients displayed the most significant impairment, including impairment in glucose response relative to controls (p=0.03). Hydrocortisone dose was negatively correlated with epinephrine response (r=-0.58; p=0.007) and glucose response (r=-0.60; p=0.002). The present study demonstrates that untreated patients with nonclassic CAH have normal adrenomedullary function. The degree of epinephrine deficiency in patients with CAH is associated with the severity of adrenocortical dysfunction, as well as glucocorticoid therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Athletic excellence requires a combination of genetic endowment, continuous training, appropriate equipment, and proper nutrition. However, the specific genetic and/or intrinsic hormonal milieus that contribute to athletic performance are not clearly understood. Androgens are thought to play an important role in exercise-induced target tissue response. In adults, the use of exogenous anabolic steroids was found to improve athletic performance, decrease fatigue, increase muscle mass, and increase aggressiveness. However, the benefit of these substances in adolescents remains questionable. Moreover, the role of endogenous androgen secretion for competitive performance success is far less studied. The present review will summarize aspects related to the effect of endogenous hyperandrogenism on exercise performance, as seen in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and will concentrate on important lessons learned from the unique model of exercise in congenital adrenal hyperplasia, a disease associated with endogenous hyperandrogenism.Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism: JPEM 12/2010; 23(12):1213-9. DOI:10.1515/jpem.2010.194 · 0.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To comprehensively phenotype parents identified with nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCCAH) by family genetic studies, termed here as cryptic NCCAH and to define the incidence of cryptic NCCAH in the parents of a large cohort of patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Genotyping was performed on 249 parents of 145 unrelated congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients. Parents with two CYP21A2 mutations underwent extensive evaluation. Of the 249 parents, ten (4%; seven females and three males) were identified as having cryptic NCCAH. The majority was of ethnicities previously reported to have a higher incidence of NCCAH. Cosyntropin stimulation performed in eight parents provided biochemical confirmation (17-hydroxyprogesterone range 56-364 nmol/l) and cortisol response was ≤500 nmol/l in three parents (38%). Of the seven women (27-54 years) with cryptic NCCAH, four had prior infertility, two reported irregular menses, two had treatment for hirsutism, one had androgenic alopecia. Men were asymptomatic. All cryptic NCCAH parents reported normal puberty and had normal height. Adrenal hypertrophy and a small adrenal myelolipoma were observed in two parents; testicular adrenal rest tissue was not found. Parents diagnosed with NCCAH by genetic testing are mostly asymptomatic. Temporary female infertility and suboptimal cortisol response were commonly observed. Ongoing glucocorticoid therapy is not indicated in adults with CAH identified by family genotype studies unless symptomatic, but glucocorticoid stress coverage should be considered in select cases. Parents of a child with CAH have a 1:25 risk of having NCCAH; if the mother of a child with CAH has infertility, evaluation for NCCAH is indicated.European Journal of Endocrinology 03/2011; 164(6):977-84. DOI:10.1530/EJE-11-0019 · 3.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Premature pubarche (PP) is the most frequent sign of nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCCAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency in childhood. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the CYP21A2 genotype and baseline and ACTH-stimulated 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and cortisol serum levels in patients presenting with PP. A total of 152 Italian children with PP were studied. Baseline and ACTH-stimulated 17-OHP and cortisol serum levels were measured and CYP21A2 gene was genotyped in all subjects. Baseline and ACTH-stimulated serum 17-OHP levels were significantly higher in NCCAH patients than in both heterozygotes and children with idiopathic PP (IPP). Of the patient population, four NCCAH patients (7.3%) exhibited baseline 17-OHP values <2 ng/ml (6 nmol/l). An ACTH-stimulated 17-OHP cutoff level of 14 ng/ml (42 nmol/l) identified by the receiver-operating characteristics curves showed the best sensitivity (90.9%) and specificity (100%) in distinguishing NCCAH patients. This value, while correctly identifying all unaffected children, missed 9% of affected individuals. Cortisol response to ACTH stimulation was <18.2 μg/dl (500 nmol/l) in 14 NCCAH patients (28%) and none of the heterozygotes or IPP children. Among the 55 NCCAH patients, 54.5% were homozygous for mild CYP21A2 mutations, 41.8% were compound heterozygotes for one mild and one severe CYP21A2 gene mutations, and 3.6% had two severe CYP21A2 gene mutations. In children with PP, baseline 17-OHP levels are not useful to rule out the diagnosis of NCCAH, which is accomplished by means of ACTH testing only. The different percentages of severe and mild CYP21A2 gene mutations found in PP children compared with adult NCCAH patients is an indirect evidence that the enzyme defect is under-diagnosed in childhood, and it might not lead to the development of hyperandrogenic symptoms in adulthood. Stress-dose glucocorticoids should be considered in patients with suboptimal cortisol response to ACTH stimulation.European Journal of Endocrinology 06/2011; 165(2):307-14. DOI:10.1530/EJE-11-0119 · 3.69 Impact Factor