The Aging African-American Face
ABSTRACT With the desire to create a more youthful appearance, patients of all races and ethnicities are increasingly seeking nonsurgical and surgical rejuvenation. In particular, facial rejuvenation procedures have grown significantly within the African-American population. This increase has resulted in a paradigm shift in facial plastic surgery as one considers rejuvenation procedures in those of African descent, as the aging process of various racial groups differs from traditional models. The purpose of this article is to draw attention to the facial features unique to those of African descent and the role these features play in the aging process, taking care to highlight the differences from traditional models of facial aging. In addition, this article will briefly describe the nonsurgical and surgical options for facial rejuvenation taking into consideration the previously discussed facial aging differences and postoperative considerations.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: While skin color is the most notable difference among ethnic skins the current knowledge on skin physiological and aging properties are based mainly on Caucasian skin studies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate histological differences in elastin fiber network and differential responsiveness to TGF-β in skin of Caucasians and African Americans. METHODS: These studies were undertaken using human skin biopsies, primary dermal fibroblasts, Western blot analyses, immunofluorescence microscopy, cDNA array and quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS: In Caucasian subjects, tropoelastin expression and elastin fibers in photoprotected skin was substantially less than in age-matched African American skin. Expression of tropoelastin in photoexposed skin of African American was similar to their photoprotected skin, suggesting that photoexposure did not affect elastin fibers in African American skin to the same extent as Caucasian skin. An elevated level of TGF-β1 present in media from dermal fibroblasts derived from African American skins correlated well with the higher levels of TGF-β mRNA in African American skins analyzed by cDNA array. Treatment with TGF-β1 resulted in a considerably higher induction of elastin mRNA in dermal fibroblasts from African Americans than from Caucasian fibroblasts, indicative of enhanced TGF-β signaling in African American skins. Furthermore, UVA exposure decreased levels of elastin mRNA in Caucasian fibroblasts compared to African Americans fibroblasts. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that there are ethnic differences in the elastin fiber network and in TGF-β signaling in African American and Caucasian skin, and that African American have less UV dependent loss of elastin than Caucasian which may contribute to the different perceived aging phenotypes.Journal of dermatological science 03/2013; 70. DOI:10.1016/j.jdermsci.2013.03.004 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Facial resurfacing procedures are becoming increasingly popular. The percentage of non-Caucasian individuals seeking these treatments continues to rise. Patients with darker skin types (Fitzpatrick skin types IV-VI) face unique challenges for successful facial skin resurfacing. Common issues encountered by non-Caucasian patients include dyschromias, acne scars, photoaging, keloid and hypertrophic scars, benign cutaneous tumors, and hair-related disorders. This article discusses the most frequently used lasers and chemical peels used to address these problems.Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.fsc.2014.04.012 · 1.18 Impact Factor