New emerging concepts in the medical management of local radiation injury.

Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, Laboratoire de Radiopathologie et de Thérapie Expérimentale, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay- aux-Roses, France.
Health physics (Impact Factor: 0.92). 06/2010; 98(6):851-7. DOI: 10.1097/HP.0b013e3181c9f79a
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Treatment of severe radiation burns remains a difficult medical challenge. The response of the skin to ionizing radiation results in a range of clinical manifestations. The most severe manifestations are highly invalidating. Although several therapeutic strategies (excision, skin grafting, skin or muscle flaps) have been used with some success, none have proven entirely satisfying. The concept that stem cell injections could be used for reducing normal tissue injury has been discussed for a number of years. Mesenchymal stem cells therapy may be a promising therapeutic approach for improving radiation-induced skin and muscle damages. Pre-clinical and clinical benefit of mesenchymal stem cell injection for ulcerated skin and muscle restoration after high dose radiation exposure has been successfully demonstrated. Three first patients suffering from severe radiological syndrome were successfully treated in France based on autologous human grade mesenchymal stem cell injection combined to plastic surgery or skin graft. Stem cell therapy has to be improved to the point that hospitals can put safe, efficient, and reliable clinical protocols into practice.

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    ABSTRACT: There is little information on the fate of infused mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and long-term side effects after irradiation exposure. We addressed these questions using human MSCs (hMSCs) intravenously infused to nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice submitted to total body irradiation (TBI) or local irradiation (abdominal or leg irradiation). The animals were sacrificed 3 to 120 days after irradiation and the quantitative and spatial distribution of hMSCs were studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Following their infusion into nonirradiated animals, hMSCs homed to various tissues. Engraftment depended on the dose of irradiation and the area exposed. Total body irradiation induced an increased hMSC engraftment level compared to nonirradiated mice, while local irradiations increased hMSC engraftment locally in the area of irradiation. Long-term engraftment of systemically administered hMSCs in NOD/SCID mice increased significantly in response to tissue injuries produced by local or total body irradiation until 2 weeks then slowly decreased depending on organs and the configuration of irradiation. In all cases, no tissue abnormality or abnormal hMSCs proliferation was observed at 120 days after irradiation. This work supports the safe and efficient use of MSCs by injection as an alternative approach in the short- and long-term treatment of severe complications after radiotherapy for patients refractory to conventional treatments.
    Stem cells international. 01/2014; 2014:939275.

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