Radioimmunotherapy with radioactive nanoparticles: biological doses and treatment efficiency for vascularized tumors with or without a central hypoxic area.

Research Center in Physics of Matter and Radiation, Laboratoire d'Analyses par Réactions Nucléaires, University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur, Belgium.
Medical Physics (Impact Factor: 2.91). 04/2010; 37(4):1826-39. DOI: 10.1118/1.3368599
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Radioactive atoms attached to monoclonal antibodies are used in radioimmunotherapy to treat cancer while limiting radiation to healthy tissues. One limitation of this method is that only one radioactive atom is linked to each antibody and the deposited dose is often insufficient to eradicate solid and radioresistant tumors. In a previous study, simulations with the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended code showed that physical doses up to 50 Gy can be delivered inside tumors by replacing the single radionuclide by a radioactive nanoparticle of 5 nm diameter containing hundreds of radioactive atoms. However, tumoral and normal tissues are not equally sensitive to radiation, and previous works did not take account the biological effects such as cellular repair processes or the presence of less radiosensitive cells such as hypoxic cells.
The idea is to adapt the linear-quadratic expression to the tumor model and to determine biological effective doses (BEDs) delivered through and around a tumor. This BED is then incorporated into a Poisson formula to determine the shell control probability (SCP) which predicts the cell cluster-killing efficiency at different distances "r" from the center of the tumor. BED and SCP models are used to analyze the advantages of injecting radioactive nanoparticles instead of a single radionuclide per vector in radioimmunotherapy.
Calculations of BED and SCP for different distances r from the center of a solid tumor, using the non-small-cell lung cancer as an example, were investigated for 90Y2O3 nanoparticles. With a total activity of about 3.5 and 20 MBq for tumor radii of 0.5 and 1.0 cm, respectively, results show that a very high BED is deposited in the well oxygenated part of the spherical carcinoma.
For either small or large solid tumors, BED and SCP calculations highlight the important benefit in replacing the single beta-emitter 90Y attached to each antibody by a 90Y2O3 nanoparticle.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to measure survival fraction of A549 lung carcinoma cells irradiated with charged particles of various LET and to determine mechanisms responsible for enhanced cell killing in the low-dose region. A549 cells were irradiated with a broadbeam of either 10 and 25 keV/μm protons or 100 keV/μm alpha particles and then processed for clonogenic assays and phospho-histone H3 staining. The survival fraction of unirradiated A549 cells co-cultured with irradiated cells was also evaluated. A549 cells were shown to exhibit low-dose hypersensitivity (HRS) for both protons and alpha particles. The dose threshold at which HRS occurs decreased with increasing linear energy transfer (LET), whereas αs, the initial survival curve slope, increased with increasing LET. In addition, the enhanced cell killing observed after irradiation with alpha particles was partly attributed to the bystander effect, due to the low proportion of hit cells at very low doses. Co-culture experiments suggest a gap junction-mediated bystander signal. Our results indicate that HRS is likely to be dependent on LET, and that a bystander effect and low-dose hypersensitivity may co-exist within a given cell line.
    Radiation Research 10/2013; · 2.70 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Since 1957, broad proton beam radiotherapy with a spread out Bragg peak has been used for cancer treatment. More recently, studies on the use of proton therapy in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were performed and although the benefit of using protons for the treatment of NSCLC is recognized, more work is needed to gather additional data for the understanding of cell response. Human A549 cell survival was evaluated by colony forming assay 11 days after 10 keV/μm proton beam irradiation at 0.1 and 1 Gy/min. The residual energy of the proton beam at the location of the irradiated cells was 3.9 MeV. In parallel, early effects on the cell viability and DNA damage were assessed and DNA synthesis was measured. The survival curve obtained was fitted with both the linear and the induced-repair models, as a hyper-radiosensitivity was evidenced at very low doses. Above 0.5 Gy, a linear shape was observed with the α parameter equal to 0.824 ± 0.029 Gy(-1). In addition, early cell death and cell proliferation arrest were enhanced. Moreover, a clear correlation between DNA damage and surviving fraction was observed. Finally, comparisons with X and γ ray results indicate that proton irradiation at 10 keV/μm enhanced the tumor radiosensitivity with a significant dose-dependent decrease in the survival fraction. The RBE value of 1.9 ± 0.4 obtained for a 10% survival support this observation.
    Radiation Research 01/2013; · 2.70 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 4, 2014