Dieulafoy's lesion is an unusual cause of gastrointestinal bleeding with the most common location being the stomach. A periampullary location is rare for a bleeding Dieulafoy's lesion.
We present the case of a 52-year-old female who presented with intermittent painless melena. Her upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy were normal. She was a diagnostic challenge as no definite lesion could be identified on capsule endoscopy. However, as there was presence of fresh blood in the proximal jejunum, a push enteroscopy was performed which revealed the presence of fresh blood in the duodenum and proximal jejunum. But no bleeding lesion could be identified. A side view endoscopy was performed which revealed a bleeding periampullary Dieulafoy's lesion. Immediate hemostasis was achieved with an injection of adrenalin. Other episodes of bleeding occurred and the patient was finally treated surgically.
A periampullary Dieulafoy's lesion presenting with obscure gastrointestinal bleed is a diagnostic challenge and can be missed on capsule endoscopy.
"Mabee and colleagues reported the first case of periampullary bleeding, the origin of which was a large vascular malformation of the minor papilla.4 Of the small number of reported cases, vascular malformations including angiodysplasia4–6 and Dieulafoy’s lesions7–9 have been repeatedly implicated as the source of bleeding. A number of endoscopic techniques have been utilized to control hemorrhage originating from these lesions including epinephrine injection,7 hemoclipping,8 and endoscopic resection.5 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Periampullary bleeding is an uncommon cause of upper gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage, which is typically iatrogenic in origin occurring as the result of endoscopic intervention of the papilla. Spontaneous, non-iatrogenic periampullary bleeding is extraordinarily rare with only a few cases reported in the literature to date. Vascular malformations, including angiodysplasia and Dieulafoy's lesions, have been implicated in several reports as the etiology but endoscopic intervention is often unsuccessful in achieving durable hemostasis with surgery being required for definitive management in many cases. Herein is reported the case of a 67-year-old male on anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation who presented with severe upper GI bleeding determined to be arising from underneath the hood of the major papilla. No distinct lesion was seen endoscopically but the presumed etiology was an unidentified vascular malformation. Successful treatment was achieved with argon plasma coagulation (APC) applied circumferentially around the papilla. No subsequent endoscopic or surgical intervention was required for durable hemostasis and the patient was able to resume anticoagulation shortly after the procedure. This is the first reported case of spontaneous periampullary bleeding successfully treated with APC.
Clinical Medicine Insights: Gastroenterology 08/2014; 7:47-50. DOI:10.4137/CGast.S17667
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding is unique from variceal bleeding in terms of patient characteristics, management, rebleeding rates, and prognosis, and should be managed differently. The majority of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeds will not rebleed once treated successfully. The incidence is 80 to 90% of all upper gastrointestinal bleeds and the mortality is between 5 to 10%. The causes include nonacid-related ulceration from tumors, infections, inflammatory disease, Mallory-Weiss tears, erosions, esophagitis, dieulafoy lesions, angiodysplasias, gastric antral vascular ectasia, and portal hypertensive gastropathy. Rarer causes include hemobilia, hemosuccus pancreaticus, and aortoenteric fistulas. Hematemesis and melena are the key features of bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract, but fresh per rectal bleeding may be present in a rapidly bleeding lesion. Resuscitation and stabilization before endoscopy leads to improved outcomes. Fluid resuscitation is essential to avoid hypotension. Though widely practiced, there is currently insufficient evidence to show that routine red cell transfusion is beneficial. Coagulopathy requires correction, but the optimal international normalized ratio has not been determined yet. Risk stratification scores such as the Rockall and Glasgow-Blatchford scores are useful to predict rebleeding, mortality, and to determine the urgency of endoscopy. Evidence suggests that high-dose proton pump inhibitors (PPI) should be given as an infusion before endoscopy. If patients are intolerant of PPIs, histamine-2 receptor antagonists can be given, although their acid suppression is inferior. Endoscopic therapy includes thermal methods such as coaptive coagulation, argon plasma coagulation, and hemostatic clips. Four quadrant epinephrine injections combined with either thermal therapy or clipping reduces mortality. In hypoxic patients, endoscopy masks allow high-flow oxygen during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The risk of rebleeding reduces after 72 hours. In rebleeding, repeat endoscopy is useful and persistent failure of endoscopic therapy mandates either embolization or surgery. In this review, we analyze the management of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding with evidence from the currently published clinical trials.
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine 04/2011; 57(2):161-7. DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.81868 · 0.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 67-year-old gentleman with no significant medical history of note presented with sudden onset of epigastric pain, coffee ground vomiting and passing black tarry stool. A series of investigations including blood tests, ultrasound scan, CT abdomen and pelvis with contrast and endoscopy failed to reveal any site of active bleeding. The mystery remained and the patient continued to have upper gastrointestinal bleeding. A second CT abdomen and pelvis with contrast was carried out and showed evidence of contrast extravasation into the duodenum ( figure 3). An exploratory laparotomy showed no obvious site of haemorrhage and a loop jejunostomy was performed. The diagnosis of gallstone-induced auto-sphincterotomy was only made, using gastroscope via jejunostomy, when a big gallstone was found in the third part of the duodenum and the papilla was ruptured ( figure 5).
Case Reports 08/2012; 2012. DOI:10.1136/bcr-2012-006660
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