Although neuroblastoma is a common childhood malignancy, which frequently metastasizes, involvement of the facial bones and paranasal sinuses are uncommonly reported in the literature. However, over the last several years, we have encountered an increasing number of cases of metastatic neuroblastoma to the central nervous system and head and neck. This article will review the common and uncommon imaging manifestations of metastatic neuroblastoma, with emphasis on the orbits, maxillofacial bones, and paranasal sinuses.
"The mean age at diagnosis of patients with orbital neuroblastoma metastases is approximately two years of age. Twenty percent of all cases have orbital involvement, which can be the primary manifestation of the tumor [51–53]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While pediatric orbital tumors are most often managed in tertiary care centers, clinicians should be aware of the signs of intraocular and orbital neoplasms. In the pediatric population, a delay in diagnosis of orbital and intraocular lesions, even if benign, can lead to vision loss and deformity. Intraocular lesions reviewed are retinoblastoma, medulloepithelioma, and retinal astrocytic hamartoma. Orbital neoplasms reviewed are rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma metastases, optic pathway glioma, plexiform neurofibroma, leukemia, lymphoprolipherative disease, orbital inflammatory syndrome, dermoid and epidermoid inclusion cysts, and Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Vascular lesions reviewed are infantile hemangioma and venous lymphatic malformation. In conjunction with clinical examination, high-resolution ophthalmic imaging and radiologic imaging play an important role in making a diagnosis and differentiating between benign and likely malignant processes. The radiologic imaging characteristics of these lesions will be discussed to facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment. The current treatment modalities and management of tumors will also be reviewed.
Journal of Oncology 03/2013; 2013(9):975908. DOI:10.1155/2013/975908
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become one of the most valuable modalities for initial and follow-up imaging of suspected or known neuroblastoma (NBL) owing to its excellent inherent contrast, lack of ionizing radiation and multiplanar imaging capability. Importantly, NBL has a variable appearance on different imaging modalities, and this is particularly pertinent to MRI. MRI is a cornerstone for management of NBL, providing essential information at initial presentation regarding diagnosis, staging, resectability and relation to vital structures. It can also define the extent of residual disease after surgical resection or assess the efficacy of treatment. Follow-up MRI is frequently performed to ensure sustained complete remission or to monitor known residual disease. This pictorial review article aims to provide the reader with a concise, yet comprehensive, collection of MR images of primary and metastatic NBL lesions with relevant correlation with other imaging modalities.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging 04/2012; 30(7):893-906. DOI:10.1016/j.mri.2012.02.028 · 2.09 Impact Factor
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