Functional genomics analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae iron responsive transcription factor Aft1 reveals iron-independent functions.

Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C6, Canada.
Genetics (Impact Factor: 4.87). 05/2010; 185(3):1111-28. DOI: 10.1534/genetics.110.117531
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor Aft1 is activated in iron-deficient cells to induce the expression of iron regulon genes, which coordinate the increase of iron uptake and remodel cellular metabolism to survive low-iron conditions. In addition, Aft1 has been implicated in numerous cellular processes including cell-cycle progression and chromosome stability; however, it is unclear if all cellular effects of Aft1 are mediated through iron homeostasis. To further investigate the cellular processes affected by Aft1, we identified >70 deletion mutants that are sensitive to perturbations in AFT1 levels using genome-wide synthetic lethal and synthetic dosage lethal screens. Our genetic network reveals that Aft1 affects a diverse range of cellular processes, including the RIM101 pH pathway, cell-wall stability, DNA damage, protein transport, chromosome stability, and mitochondrial function. Surprisingly, only a subset of mutants identified are sensitive to extracellular iron fluctuations or display genetic interactions with mutants of iron regulon genes AFT2 or FET3. We demonstrate that Aft1 works in parallel with the RIM101 pH pathway and the role of Aft1 in DNA damage repair is mediated by iron. In contrast, through both directed studies and microarray transcriptional profiling, we show that the role of Aft1 in chromosome maintenance and benomyl resistance is independent of its iron regulatory role, potentially through a nontranscriptional mechanism.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: DNA damage response and repair proteins are centrally involved in genome maintenance pathways. Yet, little is known about their functional role under non-DNA damage-inducing conditions. Here we show that Rad9 checkpoint protein, known to mediate the damage signal from upstream to downstream essential kinases, interacts with Aft1 transcription factor in the budding yeast. Aft1 regulates iron homeostasis and is also involved in genome integrity having additional iron-independent functions. Using genome-wide expression and chromatin immunoprecipitation approaches, we found Rad9 to be recruited to 16% of the yeast genes, often related to cellular growth and metabolism, while affecting the transcription of ∼2% of the coding genome in the absence of exogenously induced DNA damage. Importantly, Rad9 is recruited to fragile genomic regions (transcriptionally active, GC rich, centromeres, meiotic recombination hotspots and retrotransposons) non-randomly and in an Aft1-dependent manner. Further analyses revealed substantial genome-wide parallels between Rad9 binding patterns to the genome and major activating histone marks, such as H3K36me, H3K79me and H3K4me. Thus, our findings suggest that Rad9 functions together with Aft1 on DNA damage-prone chromatin to facilitate genome surveillance, thereby ensuring rapid and effective response to possible DNA damage events.
    Nucleic Acids Research 10/2014; 42(20). DOI:10.1093/nar/gku915 · 8.81 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rim101 is a member of the fungal PacC family of transcription factors involved in the response to alkaline pH stress. Further studies have also implicated Rim101 in the responses to other stresses, and have shown its genetic interaction with the iron deprivation-responsive factor Aft1. The present study shows that the absence of Rim101 leads to hypersensitivity to oxidants such as t-butyl hydroperoxide and diamide, and also to the prooxidant agent selenite. The protective role of Rim101 against selenite requires the sensing complex component Rim8, the ESCRT-I/II/III complexes and the Rim13 protease involved in proteolytic activation of Rim101. The Nrg1 transcriptional repressor is a downstream effector of Rim101 in this response to selenite, as occurs in the responses to alkaline pH, Na+ and Li+ stresses. Deletion of RIM101 causes downregulation of the vacuolar ATPase genes VMA2 and VMA4, which becomes accentuated compared to wild type cells upon selenite stress, and activation of the Rim101 protein prevents inhibition of vacuolar acidification caused by selenite. These observations therefore support a role of Rim101 in modulation of vacuolar acidity necessary for selenite detoxification. In addition, a parallel Rim101-independent pathway requiring the complete ESCRT machinery (including the ESCRT-0 complex) also participates in protection against selenite.
    Fungal Genetics and Biology 09/2014; 71. DOI:10.1016/j.fgb.2014.09.001 · 3.26 Impact Factor
  • Source

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Aug 14, 2014