Variation in Specialty Care Hospitalization for Children With Chronic Conditions in California
ABSTRACT Despite the documented utility of regionalized systems of pediatric specialty care, little is known about the actual use of such systems in total populations of chronically ill children. The objective of this study was to evaluate variations and trends in regional patterns of specialty care hospitalization for children with chronic illness in California.
Using California's Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development unmasked discharge data set between 1999 and 2007, we performed a retrospective, total-population analysis of variations in specialty care hospitalization for children with chronic illness in California. The main outcome measure was the use of pediatric specialty care centers for hospitalization of children with a chronic condition in California.
Analysis of 2 170 102 pediatric discharges revealed that 41% had a chronic condition, and 44% of these were discharged from specialty care centers. Specialty care hospitalization varied by county and type of condition. Multivariate analyses associated increased specialty care center use with public insurance and high pediatric specialty care bed supply. Decreased use of regionalized care was seen for adolescent patients, black, non-Hispanic children, and children who resided in zip codes of low income or were located farther from a regional center of care.
Significant variation exists in specialty care hospitalization among chronically ill children in California. These findings suggest a need for greater scrutiny of clinical practices and child health policies that shape patterns of hospitalization of children with serious chronic disease.
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ABSTRACT: The American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association guidelines recommend that management of adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) be coordinated by specialty ACHD centers and that ACHD surgery for patients with moderate or complex congenital heart disease (CHD) be performed by surgeons with expertise and training in CHD. Given this, the aim of this study was to determine the proportion of ACHD surgery performed at specialty ACHD centers and to identify factors associated with ACHD surgery being performed outside of specialty centers. This retrospective population analysis used California's Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development's discharge database to analyze ACHD cardiac surgery (in patients 21 to 65 years of age) in California from 2000 to 2011. Designation as a "specialty ACHD center" was defined on the basis of a national ACHD directory. A total of 4,611 ACHD procedures were identified. The proportion of procedures in patients with moderate and complex CHD delivered at specialty centers increased from 46% to 71% from 2000 to 2011. In multivariate analysis among those discharges for ACHD surgery in patients with moderate or complex CHD, performance of surgery outside a specialty center was more likely to be associated with patients who were older, Hispanic, insured by health maintenance organizations, and living farther from a specialty center. In conclusion, although the proportion of ACHD surgery for moderate or complex CHD being performed at specialty ACHD centers has been increasing, 1 in 4 patients undergo surgery at nonspecialty centers. Increased awareness of ACHD care guidelines and of the patient characteristics associated with differential access to ACHD centers may help improve the delivery of appropriate care for all adults with CHD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.The American Journal of Cardiology 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2015.02.013 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Children with complex chronic conditions (CCC) are responsible for a disproportionate number of hospital readmissions. This study sought to determine 30-day hospital readmission rates in children with CCC discharged from a rehabilitation and transitional care hospital and to identify factors associated with increased risk of readmission. We conducted a retrospective cohort study identifying children with CCC discharged over an 18-month period from a subacute care facility staffed by hospitalists from a freestanding children's hospital. The primary outcome measure was readmission to the referring acute care hospital within 30 days of the subacute discharge. Of the 272 discharged patients meeting inclusion criteria as children with at least 1 CCC, 19% had at least 1 readmission within 30 days of discharge. On univariate analysis, readmission was associated with the number of home medications (P = .001), underlying chronic respiratory illness (P < .001), home apnea or pulse oximetry monitor use (P = .02), tracheostomy and/or ventilator dependence (P = .003), length of stay (P = .04), and number of follow-up appointments (P = .02). On multivariate analysis, the number of discharge medications was associated with increased odds of readmission (odds ratio: 1.11 [95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.20]; P = .01). Receiver operating curve analysis identified a cutoff of 8 medications as most associated with readmission; in patients discharged with ≥8 medications, the hospital readmission rate was 29%. This is the first known study that investigated hospital readmission rates in children with CCC discharged from a subacute facility and specifically identified the number of discharge medications as a significant risk factor for readmission.05/2014; 4(3):153-158. DOI:10.1542/hpeds.2013-0094
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ABSTRACT: Inpatient pediatric mental health is a priority topic for national quality measurement and improvement, but nationally representative data on the patients admitted or their diagnoses are lacking. Our objectives were: to describe pediatric mental health hospitalizations at general medical facilities admitting children nationally; to assess which pediatric mental health diagnoses are frequent and costly at these hospitals; and to examine whether the most frequent diagnoses are similar to those at free-standing children's hospitals. We examined all discharges in 2009 for patients aged 3 to 20 years in the nationally representative Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) and in the Pediatric Health Information System (free-standing children's hospitals). Main outcomes were frequency of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification-defined mental health diagnostic groupings (primary and nonprimary diagnosis) and, using KID, resource utilization (defined by diagnostic grouping aggregate annual charges). Nearly 10% of pediatric hospitalizations nationally were for a primary mental health diagnosis, compared with 3% of hospitalizations at free-standing children's hospitals. Predictors of hospitalizations for a primary mental health problem were older age, male gender, white race, and insurance type. Nationally, the most frequent and costly primary mental health diagnoses were depression (44.1% of all mental health admissions; $1.33 billion), bipolar disorder (18.1%; $702 million), and psychosis (12.1%; $540 million). We identified the child mental health inpatient diagnoses with the highest frequency and highest costs as depression, bipolar disorder, and psychosis, with substance abuse an important comorbid diagnosis. These diagnoses can be used as priority conditions for pediatric mental health inpatient quality measurement.PEDIATRICS 03/2014; 133(4). DOI:10.1542/peds.2013-3165 · 5.30 Impact Factor